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East Bay | Environment & Forest Defense | Health, Housing, and Public Services | Labor & Workers

Ca-OSHA Needs To Take Criminal Action Against Richmond Chevron Refinery Bosses
by United Public Workers For Action UPWA
Thursday Mar 7th, 2013 8:24 AM
Ca-OSHA refuses to take criminal action against the bosses and executives at the Chevron refinery despite the numerous injuries and the criminal violation of the law. Former Ca-OSHA director of the medical program Dr. Larry Rose shows how Chevron has violated the law and the criminal prosecution that Ca-OSHA could take but refuses to.
Cal-OSHA Mandated to take effective criminal action to immediately remediate the Richmond refinery multiple safety hazards

United Public Workers for Action

Cal-OSHA Mandated to take effective criminal action
to immediately remediate
the Richmond refinery multiple safety hazards

by Dr. Larry Rose

A dramatic informative community meeting occurred in Richmond on February 27,2013 that focused on the causes and prevention of the catastrophic Richmond refinery pipe leak, fire, and explosion and the immediate health effects as well as the health effects of previous ongoing exposures.This particular explosion/fire was a tragic event that was based on Chevron's management deception and malfeasance.

The meeting's participating labor and environmental groups were: The Blue Green Alliance, The Steelworker's Union, The Labor Occupational Health Program at U.C. Berkley CA., The Natural Resources Defense Council, Communities for a Better Environment, and the Asian Pacific Environmental Network. This collaborative will soon be named The Collaborative on Refinery Safety and Community Health.The information that emerged from the meeting documented the disregard that management of this refinery showed for the health and safety of the plant employees and the surrounding communities.

The Cal-OSHA investigation and penalties

The Cal-OSHA compliance inspection's final report was announced on January 30, 2013, six months after the event, stating that Chevron did not follow the recommendations of its own inspectors and metallurgical scientists to replace the corroded pipe that ruptured and caused the fire.Those pipe replacement recommendations dated back to 2002.

The initial leak caused a pressurized spewing out of a hot gaseous fume mist cloud that went on for two hours and employees were ordered to repair the pipe by removing the insulation and were not wearing adequate personal protection or respirators (a self contained air supplied breathing respirator).

The gaseous cloud ignited forming a black mushrooming cloud that spread over 5000 feet into the atmosphere. Therefore Chevron did not follow its own emergency shutdown procedures when the leak was discovered and did not protect its employees.

The outcome of the investigation were twenty three violations issued as "serious" and eleven of these were also classified as "willful" because Chevron did not take responsible actions to eliminate the conditions that it knew posed hazards to employees. It was found that Chevron elected to repair over one thousand plant pipe leaks with temporary clamps in this refinery rather than replacing these corroding pipes, and in some cases these clamps remained in place for years.

The background as to why Cal-OSHA did not do previous on site systematic inspections at the Richmond refinery despite several spill and fire incidents over the previous years, goes to the extreme understaffing of the agency's statewide enforcement/compliance officers, and the steady moving toward voluntary compliance of state safety standards primarily for the state's large corporations.

If Cal-OSHA had what the International Labor Organization (UN) recommended there would be nine times as many compliance inspectors. Now an approximate total of one hundred and eighty seven functioning inspectors exists for the eighteen million California workers, ( a ratio of one inspector to ninety two thousand workers). If Cal-OSHA had the same ratio of inspectors to workers as Oregon and Washington, two other state OSHA programs, there would be four times the total number of existing statewide inspectors.

This lack of an adequate number of inspectors has in fact profoundly effected the prevention of workplace injuries and illness in California. In addition many large corporations have been granted a "Voluntary Protection Program" status (no programed inspections). A similar status was granted to Chevron that is called a variance that allowed them to do computer "risk based inspections" instead of physical inspections of pipes and tanks.

The health effects of the airborne fire emissions

Twenty workers inhale the toxic fumes and combustions products from the leaking pipes. Five employees experienced some health effects. Fifteen thousand community residents went to surrounding hospitals with acute health reaction symptoms.

The gaseous releases consisted of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (carcinogens such as benzene, xylene, and toluene), heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, combustion products, and various sized respiratory particulates.

The immediate acute health reactions are mainly acute conjunctivitis (eye irritation), acute upper and lower pulmonary reactions (severe asthma and coughing) , acute bronchitis, acute sinusitis. The immediate respiratory reactions often lead to a problem called "reactive airway disease syndrome" that occurs when susceptible individuals are exposed to high concentrations of respiratory irritants subsequently become much more reactive to daily ambient airborne respiratory irritants and have more frequent respiratory crisis.

The long term effects of inhaling these emissions are an increased risk for cancer, pulmonary damage, cardiorespiratory problems, immune dysfunction, reproductive and developmental problems, and endocrine disruption.

Therefore the overall health effects, particularly in susceptible segments of the general population, are not just immediate and inconsequential.

Cal-OSHA mandated criminal inspections

The maximum fine issued by Cal-OSHA to Chevron was about one million dollars. This amounts to chump change for this refinery that turns out thirty four million dollars of product per day. Chevron is legally appealing all of these citations. The appeal process can take up to four years. During this appeal process Chevron does not have to remedy any of the causes of the citations issued that were directly related to the catastrophic explosive August 6, 2013 fire. Whether or not Chevron has proceeded to do an effective remediation to this date is unknown.

Under Article 10, section 344.51 "Criminal Investigations", it is stated "the central function of the Bureau of Investigations, within the Division of Occupational Safety and Health is to conduct criminal investigations. The Bureau must investigate accidents involving violations of a standard order, or section 25910 of the Health and Safety Code in which there is a serious injury to five or more employees, death, or request for prosecution by a division representative.

The Bureau most analyze the circumstances surrounding the violation to determine whether the conduct is sufficiently aggravated to fall within the scope of Labor Code sections 6423,6425, and other penal statutes. NOTE: Authority cited: sections 6308, 6314, 6315, Kabir Code. Reference: section 6315 and 6314 CALIFORNIA LABOR CODE.

Conclusion and Comment

In this instance, Chevron has demonstrated extreme corporate irresponsibility regarding the health and safety of it employees and the community members. During the two to four year period of Chevron's legal appeal of the serious, and willful serious Cal-OSHA citations, they are not required to remediate any of the many multiple hazardous defects in their process safety health and safety plant managed program.

The only way these multiple safety hazards will be immediately fixed will be if criminal charges are brought by Cal-OSHA against the responsible upper management individuals, and through a legally binding agreement based in the courts criminal findings management will be ordered to immediately remediate all of the serious hazards that could cause future similar plant process failures.

(The author is Larry Rose M.D., M.P.H., Occupational/Environmental Medicine, and retired as the Chief of the Cal-OSHA Medical Unit)



Chapter 3.2. California Occupational Safety and Health Regulations (CAL/OSHA)

Subchapter 2. Regulations of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health

Article 10. Civil and Criminal Enforcement Policy of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health

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§344.51. Criminal Investigations.

The central function of the Bureau of Investigations, within the Division of Occupational Safety and Health, is to conduct criminal investigations. The Bureau must investigate accidents involving violations of a standard, order, or special order, or section 25910 of the Health and Safety Code in which there is a serious injury to five or more employees, death, or request for prosecution by a Division representative. The Bureau of Investigations is the only entity within the Division, which is empowered to conduct criminal investigations and to refer the results of such investigations when appropriate to a city attorney or district attorney for necessary action. The Bureau must analyze the circumstances surrounding the violation to determine whether the conduct is sufficiently aggravated to fall within the scope of Labor Code sections 6423, 6425 and other penal statutes.

NOTE: Authority cited: Sections 6308, 6314 and 6315, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 6315 and 6314, Labor Code.


1. Editorial correction of Health and Safety section cited in text (Register 91, No. 23).

Go Back to Article 10 Table of Contents

Criminal Prosecution Demanded Against Chevron Refinery Bosses/Executives At Richmond Labor Community Meeting
At a labor community meeting in Richmond, California on February 27, 2013 speakers from the community and labor discussed the refusal of Chevron managers to prevent continued accidents and toxic releases. USW 5 which represents the refinery workers made a report on their efforts to get stronger health and safety protections. Also former Ca-OSHA Medical Director Dr. Larry Rose also reported the Ca-Osha and the California Department of Industrial Relations has refused to file criminal charges for the criminally negligent actions by Chevron management. A representative of the DIR argued that they could not do that and only take civil action.
The community spoke out about the continuous contamination and the ongoing health and safety problems.
For more information:
Production of Labor Video Project
§Chevron refinery on fire
by United Public Workers For Action UPWA Thursday Mar 7th, 2013 8:24 AM
There have been regular fires and toxic contamination of the Richmond Chevron refinery but Ca-OSHA and the Brown administration refuse to prosecute the managers and executives.
§Chevron refinery cloud
by United Public Workers For Action UPWA Thursday Mar 7th, 2013 8:24 AM
Hundreds of thousands of residents in the East Bay and the bay area were contaminated by the explosion and fire yet no refinery officials have been charged with criminal negligence and endangering the health and safety of the workers and community.

Comments  (Hide Comments)

by Earl Richards
Thursday Mar 7th, 2013 4:04 PM
To understand the sleaze-side of Chevron, see, http://www.truecostofchevron.com.
Richmond Chevron refinery safety under microscope-CA has only "Cal/OSHA has 164 inspectors, only seven of whom are assigned to refineries and chemical plants. That amounts to one inspector per 115,000 workers."
Demo Gov Brown Has Cutback Health and Safety Inspectors and CA AFL-CIO head Art Pulaski has been completely silent about this attack on health and safety

Chevron refinery safety under microscope
Jaxon Van Derbeken
Updated 5:51 pm, Thursday, March 7, 2013

The fire at the Chevron refinery in Richmond on Aug. 6., 2012, has brought close scrutiny by Cal/OSHA. Photo: D. Ross Cameron, Associated Press

California's workplace-safety agency has spent the equivalent of one-fifth of its entire annual budget investigating last year's Chevron Richmond refinery fire, a top state official testified Thursday during a hearing at which a lawmaker suggested the state needed to strengthen its regulatory efforts.

Under questioning in Sacramento by Sen. Loni Hancock, D-Berkeley, state Department of Industrial Relations head Christine Baker said Cal/OSHA has dedicated more than 4,000 hours to determining whether Chevron violated safety regulations in connection with the Aug. 6 fire.

"Wow, 4,000 staff hours?" Hancock said. "Do you know what percentage of your yearly budget that would be?"

"It took approximately 21 percent of our yearly budget," Baker replied.

Cal/OSHA has slapped Chevron with 25 citations, most of them serious, for allegedly violating safety rules and is seeking nearly $1 million in penalties. Chevron is appealing the fines.

Hancock, whose district includes the Richmond refinery, said the resources that the state is pouring into the Chevron probe suggest that Cal/OSHA is shorthanded. The agency's staffing is one area being looked at by a task force that Gov. Jerry Brown created after the Richmond fire to evaluate refinery safety in California.

Baker, whose department oversees Cal/OSHA and who is a member of the task force, said, "We have identified gaps" in the state's regulatory efforts.

Cal/OSHA has 164 inspectors, only seven of whom are assigned to refineries and chemical plants. That amounts to one inspector per 115,000 workers.

Worker-safety advocates said California ranks last in staffing levels among the 25 states with their own agencies charged with enforcing federal safety rules.

After-the-fact probes
California regulators have focused on responding to accidents and worker complaints at the state's 15 refineries rather than conducting planned inspections.

The Chronicle has reported that in the past decade, those planned inspections consisted of an average of 50 staff hours of checks and resulted in no fines against major oil companies. Of the three planned inspections of Chevron before the August fire, one did not involve an actual visit to the plant. They also averaged 50 staff hours.

In contrast, a national inspection effort that began after a Texas refinery explosion killed 15 workers in 2005 entailed about 1,000 staff hours apiece and resulted in an average of 11 citations against violators. California declined to take part in that effort.

Hancock noted the disparities during her questioning of Baker.

"That says to me we really need to look at our safety standards," Hancock said. "People can die and communities can be severely degraded" during refinery fires.

Regulatory 'gaps'
Baker deferred answering a number of staffing and inspection questions, but acknowledged that staffing was one of the "gaps in our regulations."

Hancock asked whether state investigators might have discovered the alleged workplace-safety violations found at the Richmond refinery after the fire had they done a "wall-to-wall" inspection beforehand.

"It is unknown," Baker said. "The burden really shifts to Chevron in terms of providing us with information that's necessary to identify where there are problem areas - they have that information. The inspectors look, superficially many times, and can't possibly identify every corroded piece of equipment. We really need to rely on information that is being tracked by Chevron itself."

"So it's essentially self-reporting?" Hancock asked.

"Some self-reporting together with expertise of our teams," Baker replied.

Hancock pointed out that Chevron engineers had determined years ago that the Richmond refinery's lines were at risk of corrosion from sulfur-heavy oil, but that refinery managers had decided not to replace some of them. One such corroded line finally sprang a leak Aug. 6, starting the fire.

No workers were seriously injured in the blaze, but 15,000 residents went to hospitals complaining of respiratory and other problems caused by a cloud of toxic gas and smoke.

Baker said her agency is considering ways to get refineries to share more information about their operations with regulators. "We've identified this as a problem," she said.

The goal of the governor's task force, Baker said, is to learn how to prevent another calamity like the Richmond fire.

"I would appreciate that very much," Hancock said, "because sometimes it takes a problem like to this to really look at our systems to see if they are adequate."

Jaxon Van Derbeken is a San Francisco Chronicle staff writer. E-mail: jvanderbeken [at] sfchronicle.com

Read more: http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Chevron-refinery-safety-under-microscope-4337384.php#ixzz2MxUPONXy

Photo of Governor Brown with Art Pulaski head of the California AFL-CIO who has remained silent about the dangerous conditions for CA workers and Governor Brown's cutback of OSHA inspectors