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FRSC: Apple Moth Spraying in Santa Cruz interview with David Dilworth
by George Cadman
Tuesday Oct 9th, 2007 3:51 PM
Interview with David Dilworth executive director of Helping Our Peninsula's Environment talks about the California Department of Food and Agriculture second round of synthetic pheromone spraying to stop to eradicate the light brown apple moth.
Interviewed on Free Radio Santa Cruz 101fm on 10-07-07 64k mp3 56:33

Articles on the issue:

Group sues to stop moth spraying in Monterey County, says it will add Santa Cruz

Lawsuit aims to stop moth spraying

To Spray or Spray Not

Comments  (Hide Comments)

by chp
Tuesday Oct 9th, 2007 4:56 PM
Yes, I think the fact that guy pointed out, that this pheromone/chemical spray is not tailored to be specific to the Apple moth, is extremely important. Much of the other press implies that they isolated the scent of this particular species.
The other moths and butterflies and insects which will become confused by the spraying play an important role in the ecosystem too, and birds eat moths.
by multiple sources
Tuesday Oct 9th, 2007 8:12 PM
Suterra's Checkmate pesticide, the chemical being sprayed all over Monterey County, contains POLYMETHYLENE POLYPHENYL ISOCYANATE. There are plans for spraying Santa Cruz County next.

The truth should be published in the Environmental Impact Report! Here we are trying to figure out what kinds of chemicals are being sprayed on us. The government, the chemical corporations and the Sentinel are withholding information about chemicals being sprayed all over the environment.

POLYMETHYLENE POLYPHENYL ISOCYANATE is the name a chemical being sprayed on us. According to David Dilworth, executive director of Helping Our Peninsula's Environment, this chemical name was accidentally given to the Sentinel by the US EPA. The Sentinel printed it and posted it to their website, but then quickly removed the information. The Sentinel cares more about protecting corporations and their trade secrets than they do about providing the truth to their readers.

Agent Name: Polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate

CAS Number: 9016-87-9

Major Category: Plastics & Rubber

Synonyms: PAPI; Polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate; Isocyanic acid, polymethylenepolyphenylene ester; Polymeric MDI; Polymeric Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate; [ChemFinder]

Category: Diisocyanates

Description: Dark amber viscous liquid;

Sources/Uses: This resin is used as a binder in particle board and foundry cores. It is used to make polyurethane elastomers for shoes and automobile bumpers. [HSDB]

Comments: Occupational asthma reported in paint shop worker; [Malo] See "DIISOCYANATES."

Reference Link: Prevalence of occupational asthma in spray painters exposed to several types of isocyanates, including polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate

Exposure Assessment

Skin Designation (ACGIH): not evaluated

Vapor Pressure: < 0.0001 mm Hg at 25 degrees C

Adverse Effects

Asthma: Yes

IARC Carcinogen: Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases

Health Studies: Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank: POLYMETHYLENE POLYPHENYL ISOCYANATE

Toxicity Information: Search TOXNET

Chemical Information: Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References: Search PubMed

Related Information in Haz-Map

Diseases: Diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

* Asthma, occupational

Processes Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

* Molding and Core Making
* Painting (Pigments, Binders, and Biocides)
* Plastic Composites Manufacturing

Specialized Information Services U.S. National Library of Medicine,
8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894
National Institutes of Health
Privacy/Disclaimer Notice
Customer Service: tehip [at]
Last updated: July, 2007



CASRN: 9016-87-9

Human Health Effects:

Evidence for Carcinogenicity:
No data are available in humans. No data are available in animals. OVERALL EVALUATION: Group 3: The agent is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work)., p. S7 70 (1987)]**PEER REVIEWED**

WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE CHARACTERIZATION: Under U.S. EPA's 1996 Guidelines for Carcinogenic Risk Assessment, monomeric MDI or polymeric MDI (PMDI) would be classified as not classifiable or a Group D chemical. Under U.S. EPA's 1996 Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogenic Risk Assessment, the carcinogenic potential of MDI/PMDI would be characterized as "cannot be determined, but for which there is suggestive evidence that raises concern for carcinogenic effects" on the following basis. The increased incidence of pulmonary adenomas in male (6/60) and female (2/59) Wistar rats [strain Cpu:WU] and one pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a male rat, all exposed to the highest concentration in a lifetime chronic inhalation study involving PMDI, suggest that PMDI has tumorigenic potential. However, the tumorigenic results, coupled with evidence that methylene diphenyl aniline (MDA) a known animal carcinogen and the principal reaction product of MDI, is found in blood of MDI-exposed rats and nonhydrolyzed urine of PMDI/MDI-exposed humans increases concern about the carcinogenic potential of PMDI/MDI. The available human evidence is inadequate to describe the carcinogenic potential of PMDI/MDI. HUMAN CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Inadequate. ANIMAL CARCINOGENICITY DATA: Limited.
[U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) for Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (monomeric MDI) and polymeric MDI (PMDI) (101-68-8, 9016-87-9) Available from: on the Substance File List as of March 15, 2000]**QC REVIEWED**

Human Toxicity Excerpts:
Isocyanates are irritating to the skin and the mucous membranes, the skin conditions ranging from localized itching to more or less widespread eczema. Eye affections are less common and, although lacrimation is often found, conjunctivitis is rare. The commonest and most serious troubles, however, are those affecting the respiratory systems. /Isocyanates/
[International Labour Office. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I&II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1983., p. 1161]**PEER REVIEWED**

Populations at Special Risk:
Persons with a history of asthma, allergies ... or impaired lung or pulmonary function may be at an increased risk. /Methyl isocyanate/
[Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) Publication No. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981., p. 1]**PEER REVIEWED**


Toxicology Evaluation and Hazard Review for "Rigid Foam" (which uses the same chemical)

PAPI ® 20

Chemical Name (5,6): polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate

Molecular Formula: (C15H 10N202)x 50% methylene bisphenylisocyanate (MDI) and 50% MDI polymers

CAS Number: 9016-87-9

Chemical and Physical Properties (5,6):

Melting Point: NA
Boiling point: 392°F (200°C)
Flash Point: 425°F (218°C), COC
Appearance: Dark amber viscous liquid
Odor: Threshold (Vapor)= 0.4 ppm
Solubility in Water: reacts
Log Octanol/water partition coefficient: NA
Exposure limits (7):
(as methylene bisphenylisocyanate):
CEIL = 0.2 mg/m3 (0.02 ppm)
TWA = 0.05 mg/m3 (0.005 ppm)
TWA 10 min. CEIL = 0.2 mg/m3 (0.02 ppm)
TWA = 0.051 mg/m3 (0.005 ppm)

Toxicology: Polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate may be harmful by inhalation,
ingestion, or skin absorption. Vapor mist is irritating to the eyes, mucous
membranes and upper respiratory tract. Isocyanates are very reactive substances
that are also capable of reacting with proteins to form antigens resulting in a severe
allergic respiratory reactions (8). In summary,it is expected that at concentrations
between 0 and 0.02 ppm there is little danger of any allergic reaction to the
isocyanate. At levels greater than 0.02 ppm but less than 0.1 ppm, a small
percentage of the general population may exhibit symptoms of sensitivity. At
concentrations of 0.1 to 1 ppm, irritation of the respiratory tract and mucous
membranes will occur and at concentration of 1.0 ppm and greater there is a
potential of acute toxic effects.

Oral-rat LDS0 = >10,000 mg/kg (9).
Skin-rabbit LDS0 = > 5 ml/kg (9).

Acute Exposure: Acute exposure to polyisocyanates results in irritation of the
eyes, mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. Polyisocyanates may cause
respiratory tract irritation, chest discomfort, breathlessness, wheezing, cough with
sputum, and reduced pulmonary function (9, 10).

Chronic Exposure: Clinical studies have indicated that a small percentage of the
population (17%) become sensitized when exposed to isocyanates. Subsequent
exposure of these sensitized individuals can lead to an asthmatic-like reaction and
severe respiratory distress (9, 11).

Eye Exposure: Isocyanate vapors are highly irritating to the mucous membranes
of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. Exposure of the eyes to liquid isocyanates
may result in dehydration of the tissue causing severe irritation of the eyelid and
possible damage to the cornea. Exposure to high concentrations of isocyanate
vapor can lead to formation of solid crystals in the eye fluid causing mechanical
irritation of the eyes hours after exposure (3, 9, 12).

Inhalation Exposure: Inhalation of isocyanate vapors can produce severe
irritation of the mucous membranes in the respiratory tract, i.e., nose, throat, and
lungs (13). Exposure of humans to concentrations of isocyanate vapor in excess of
the maximum acceptable concentration (0.2 mg/m3 CEIL) has caused illness
characterized by breathlessness, chest discomfort, and reduced pulmonary
function. Furthermore, isocyanate exposure has caused, within minutes, irritation
of the trachea and larynx and severe coughing spasms leading to bronchitis,
bronchial spasm, and/or pulmonary edema (chemical pneumonitis) which can be
fatal (14). Isocyanate exposure in individuals With existing respiratory disease, i.e.,
chronic bronchitis, emphysema, bronchiectasis, previous histoplasmosis,
tuberculosis, or sarcoidosis, is likely to cause aggravation (9).

Oral Exposure: Animal experiments indicate that the toxic effects of polymeric
isocyanates, when ingested, are slight. The LD50 in rats for PAPI ®is greater than
10,000 mg/kg (9). Therefore, although it is believed that ingestion of polymeric
isocyanates are not expected to be fatal to humans, ingestion can result in irritation
and corrosive action on the mouth and stomach tissue (15).

Dermal Exposure: Exposure of the skin to PAPI ®does not result in toxic effects
other than irritation and potential sensitization. Prolonged or repeated contact
with polymeric isocyanates or contact with highly sensitive or allergic personnel
however, can result in chemical bums, dermatitis and sensitization. The dermal
LD50 after continuous 24 hour contact with the shaved skin of male, albino rabbit
is greater than 5 ml/kg (9, 16).


There is insufficient evidence that MDI is mutagenic in the
Ames assay. Furthermore, there is currently no evidence that PAPI ® produces
carcinogenic effects in humans or animals. PAPI ® is not listed as a carcinogen by
NTP, IARC, or ACGIH nor is it regulated as a carcinogen by OSHA (7, 9).
However, free methylenedianiline, a known carcinogen, has been found in
thermally degraded MDI based polyurethane foams (17).

Reproductive Effects: There is currently no data implicating isocyanates in toxic
reproductive or teratogenic effects (3, 4).


Polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate is incompatible with strong
oxidizing agents, acids, bases, some metals, and alcohols. Polymeric isocyanates
also react slowly and exothermically on contact with water (5,6).

Hazardous Decomposition Products: Toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,
nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen cyanides, may be produced upon thermal
decomposition of isocyanates (18). Thermal decomposition of PAPI ® foams at
temperatures that do not result in ignition have been known to produce toxic
isocyanate vapors and methylenedianiline (MDA) a known carcinogen (17, 19).

(text taken from pdf)
by ears open
Wednesday Oct 10th, 2007 5:28 PM
excellent source of info KUDOS!!!!
by Sentinel via
Thursday Oct 11th, 2007 1:23 AM
Checkmate olr-f
Key ingredients of pheromone as reported by the Santa Cruz Sentinel

According to the EPA, some of the key ingredients are (Z)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate, 11-Tetradecen-1-ol, acetate, (E)-. Inert ingredients are water, polyvinyl alcohol, tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride, sodium phosphate, and polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate.

Just one of many Ingredients-Isocyanates:
"Breathing System Effects Adverse effects to the breathing system associated with isocyanate exposure include acute (short-term) or chronic (long-lasting) effects due to a single overexposure,..."