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Al Qaeda, Anthrax and Ayman

by Ross E. Getman
An attorney addresses the means, opportunity, motive and modus operandi of the anthrax crimes in the US.
December 4, 2002

    Vice President Cheney, CIA Director Tenet, Gorbachev, the former chief arms inspector in Iraq, and the former head CIA agent in Iraq all have said that they believe that Al Qaeda is responsible for the anthrax attacks. A growing number of commentators agree
-- urging that the publicly known evidence about means, opportunity, modus operandi and motive in the Amerithrax investigation points to Al Qaeda.(1) The argument, however, is far stronger than has been made to date.

    First, Al Qaeda has had anthrax since at least 1997. Dr. Ayman Zawahiri's right-hand man confessed that Zawahiri succeeded in obtaining anthrax and intended to use it against US targets.

    Second, Senators Daschle and Leahy likely were targeted because of the appropriations to military and security forces that have prevented the militant islamists from achieving their goals. The appropriations are made pursuant to the "Leahy Law." The FBI's involvement in muslim countries is deemed to interfere with the sovereignty of those countries. Senator Leahy is Chairman of both the Judiciary Committee overseeing the FBI and the Appropriations Subcommittee in charge of foreign aid to these countries.

    Third, the Egyptian islamists sent letter bombs a few years ago to newspaper offices in New York City and Washington, D.C. in connection with the earlier bombing of the World Trade Center. The letter bombs were sent in connection with the treatment of the Egyptian islamists imprisoned for the earlier attack on the WTC. The apparent purpose of the letter bombs --which resulted in minimal casualty -- was to send a message. (There is an outstanding $2 million reward)

      The FBI, for its part, reports that it is vigorously testing many alternative hypotheses.(2) The FBI has said that authorities do not know whether the perp is American or Foreign.(3) Asked if the possibility of an overseas perpetrator is still open, an investigator says, "Absolutely. Until we get a good suspect identified, we're looking at all theories."(4)

Means and Opportunity: Al Qaeda's Biochem Program    

    Bin Laden purchased anthrax a few years ago from a supplier in North Korea.(6) The Moro Front, an Indonesian radical group associated with Bin Laden, arranged for the purchase, but Bin Laden's own name was reportedly on the purchase order.(7) Dr. Ayman Zawahiri had a list of 100 US and Israeli targets to use it against.(8) Thus, while the question of the source of the Ames strain used in the Amerithrax mailings is problematic and addressed more fully below, Al Qaeda's acquisition of anthrax for the purpose of using it as a weapon against the US has been known for a long time. Indeed, Vice President Cheney and his staff knew to take Cipro on 9/11, a full week before the first anthrax letter was mailed.(9)

    In 1999, the Federation of American Scientists (“FAS”) detailed the facts relating to Bin Laden's purchase of anthrax in 1997 (relying on the translation of confessions and court testimony of Egyptian Islamic Jihad members).(10) At the same time the pro-Bin Laden Jihad elements obtained the anthrax and other pathogens, they diversified the targets and did not limit them to the blowing up of installations. They launched joint action with other groups and organizations, both local groups and others operating outside their countries. The group has maintained the objective of seizing power in Egypt since the coup planned by Jihad in 1981 and despite the Egyptian government's success in cracking down on the organization.(11)

    Upon the merger in 1998, the most senior planners in Al Qaeda relating to tactics and biological weapons were Egyptian Islamic Jihad, to include Ayman Zawahiri, Mohammed Atef, and Abu Khabab. Zawahiri is the real "brains" behind 9/11, not Bin Laden.(12) While the US government views the two groups as having merged in 1998, author Peter Bergen suggests that they have essentially been the same organization, with the merger having occurred some years before that.(13) Formerly the head of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Zawahiri assumed the #2 position after Bin Laden upon a merger of some of Islamic Jihad into Al Qaeda a few years ago.(14) Zawahiri was in charge of Al Qaeda's biological weapons program. Zawahiri's wrath against the United States is thought to have sharpened in 1998 upon the extradition of some islamic jihad members to Egypt from Albania.(15)

    In 1998, Zawahiri took time out from his travels to create some computer documents describing his biological and chemical program, which he code-named "Curdled Milk."(16) The project apparently included work on a pesticide/nerve agent that used a chemical to increase absorption (and was tested on rabbits and dogs).(17)

    Zawahiri was assisted by Midhat Mursi (alias Abu Khabab).(18) An Egyptian chemical engineer, he ran the camp named Abu Khabab. Abu Khabab's whereabouts are still unknown.  Al Qaeda's experimentation with its chemical weapons is now featured on the nightly television news picturing a dog being put to death. Disturbing scenes of death show Al Qaeda's capability with what appears to be cyanide, which Al Qaeda contemplated using recently in Indonesia dispensing it by perfume bottles, in the Tube in London, and in the US embassy water supply in Rome.(19)

    There were early dramatic reports of vials labeled "sarin gas" and "anthrax.(20) The public was told of the availability of poisons in northwestern Pakistan, made available as the result of the break-up of the Soviet Union. Later, there were reports of an Al Qaeda facility in northern Iraq where there was testing of chemical and biological weapons (such as ricin, which is derived from castor beans) on barnyard animals and a human.(21) The area apparently is protected by a radical Kurdish group in an area not controlled by Saddam Hussein. ABCNEWS reported that there is evidence the terrorists tested ricin in water, as a powder and as an aerosol. The militants used it to kill donkeys and chickens, and at one point, the terrorists allegedly exposed a man to the toxin in an Iraqi market and followed him home and watched him die several days later.(22) In Afghanistan, documents were found indicating that Al Qaeda was doing research relating to plans to use botulinum to kill 2,000 people and was seeking to obtain smallpox.(23)

According to Stephen Younger, director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, however, Al-Qaida's interest in biological weapons has been focused mainly on anthrax.(24) One lab contained a centrifuge for separating liquids and an oven in which slurried agents could be dried.(25)

    Dr. Ayman Zawahiri's home in Kabul tested positive for anthrax. (26) It has never been reported that the test was a false positive or that the anthrax was determined to be naturally occurring. Similarly, 5 out of 19 labs tested positive for traces of anthrax.(27) The Kabul office of Pakistani scientist Sultan Bashiru-din Mehmood also contained documents indicating an interest in anthrax -- to include calculations relating to the aerial dispersal of anthrax by a balloon. US-hating (Taliban) Mullahs oversaw the anthrax vaccine laboratory, much to the consternation of the scientist in charge of the lab. (28) In late November, an AP photo showed something at the lab described as "anthrax spore concentrate."(29)

    John Lindh told interrogators that, according to battlefield rumors, a biological attack was expected to be a "second wave."(30)

    Zawahiri traveled widely in his attempts to obtain and weaponize anthrax and other terroristic missions -- he traveled to Malaysia, Iraq, Russia and United States. For example, Zawahiri traveled to the US in 1991, 1995 and possibly 1998 under an alias.(31) He went to California, New York and DC (and apparently Texas at one point). Zawahiri sometimes was accompanied by a New Jersey pharmacist and a California doctor (a former classmate who denies knowing who Zawahiri was). They were joined by a former US Army sergeant and key Al Qaeda operative, Ali Mohammed.(32) Zawahiri went to Russia in 1997 where he was imprisoned for 6 months. (The Russians never learned his real identity.) (33) In 1998 he went to Baghdad.(34) According to Newsweek, U.S. operatives in Afghanistan discovered evidence indicating that one or more Russian scientists were helping al-Qaeda weaponize anthrax.(35) US News had an account of a reporter's encounter with a Filipino carrying papers from Dr. Zawahiri (allowing free lodging) and bragging about his ability to manipulate anthrax.(36)

    Dr. Richard Spertzel, the former UN inspector in Iraq, says that the product here was well within Iraq's capability. UNSCOM determined that the Iraqi weapons program produced dried anthrax as well as the more primitive wet form.(37) Spertzel and others agree that Iraq would likely have Ames -- having first sought it in 1988 (and security being so lax at so many laboratories that had it).(38)

    Given that we know where Saddam lives, and he is a survivalist, he would want to maintain deniability in the event he had assisted in the anthrax mailing. As former Russian bioweaponeer Ken Alibek has explained, a terrorist state sponsor would want to use a strain that was not associated with it.

    Spertzel states: "Iraq certainly knows how to produce 100 percent pure spores. That is a technique that they developed ... which is capable of giving them the kind of concentrations that we are seeing in the Daschle letter."(39)  The bottom-line, however, remains that Iraq is just one of a number of possibilities. Al Qaeda had purchased anthrax for the intention of using it against US targets and Zawahiri sought out the necessary expertise in his travels. (40)

    The genetic analysis of Dr. Keim, from Northern Arizona, had promised to remove all doubt potentially as to the source of the anthrax. Hopes have long since faded according to press reports. Timothy D. Read, whose work at the Institute for Genetic Research in Rockville, Md. provided the FBI with its first genetic roadmap for anthrax, has said that the differences identified by his team could not pinpoint the source.(41)

    The research is reported in "Science."(42) The analysis is directed to showing the similarity between various samples of Ames. According to many reports, Ames was widely distributed to universities throughout the world. But even under the most conservative estimate (such as made by Dr. Hatch Rosenberg), the strain was sent to 15-20 labs. The "Science" article does not address the testing done with respect to isolates from the vast majority of labs where Ames was known to be. 15 labs remained to be tested. (Note that the date of the lab isolate presumed by some to be Ft. Detrick was not disclosed in the article.)

     One expert, Dr. C.J. Peters, summarizes:

"Knowing that this strain was originally isolated in the U.S. has absolutely nothing to do with where the weapon may have been prepared because, as I tried to make the point, these strains move around. A post doc in somebody's laboratory could have taken this strain to another lab and it could have been taken overseas and it could have ended up absolutely anywhere. Tiny quantities of anthrax that you couldn't see, that you couldn't detect in an inventory can be used to propagate as much as you want. So that's just not, in fact, very helpful."(43)

    Ft. Detrick sent its Ames strain to places like Porton Down in Great Britain and Suffield in Canada.(44) We can reasonably assume that Ft. Detrick did not send it directly to any supplier in North Korea. Presently, there is no information in the public record as to the strain that Bin Laden purchased in 1997. Informed analysis requires that at least that much be determined.

    Working on the assumption that the anthrax purchased from the North Korea supplier was not Ames -- which is a huge and perhaps reckless assumption -- then the question relevant to an Al Qaeda theory is what access to the US Army strain might have been accomplished by someone with 1) a multi millionaire (Bin Laden) backing his play, and 2) a lot of Muslims who believe in his Islamist cause (for example, toppling the Egyptian and Saudi regimes). The possible sources include Russia, Iraq, the US Army, or a facility that obtained Ames from the US Army or other researcher who had it.

    This was the instinct of the Administration from early on, according to Woodward's Bush at War:

"They turned to the hot topic of anthrax. The powder in the letter mailed to Senator Daschle's office had been found to be potent, prompting officials to suggest its source was likely an expert capable of producing the bacteria in huge amounts. Tenet said, "I think it's AQ -- meaning Al Qaeda."

"I think there's a state sponsor involved. It's too well thought-out, the powder's too well refined. It might be Iraq, it might be Russia, it might be a renegade scientist, perhaps from Iraq or Russia."
"I'm not going to talk about a state sponsor." Tenet assured them.
"It's good that we don't." said Cheney, "because we're not ready to do anything about it."

    The technique to weaponize the anthrax was not the one used by the US Army. (William Patrick's process involved freeze drying and chemical processing whereas it was the Iraqi process that involved spraydrying.)(45)

    It appears, according to US bioweaponeer William Patrick, that the electrostatic charge was not removed.(46) This is contrary to what numerous press accounts have reported (based on assumptions outside observers were making dating back to last Fall). Moreover, former Russian bioweaponeer Ken Alibek and Harvard biologist Meselson have opined that there was no special coating.(47) Any silica-like coating, Drs. Meselson and Alibek say, may have been naturally occuring. Both of these points seem to indicate that the production was not state-sponsored, industrial production.

    An article in the New York Times in May 2002 noted the views of the bioweaponeer experts Alibek and Patrick based on the admittedly sparse information available:

    “As federal experts investigated the residual Daschle sample, they found the picture becoming fuzzier. On one hand, the concentration of the anthrax was extraordinarily high — roughly equal to that made in the abandoned American germ weapons program, a trillion spores per gram.    But federal experts now say the particles turned out to have a large size range. While single spores predominated, the experts said, some Daschle clusters ranged up to 40 microns wide — far too big to penetrate human lungs. A micron is one-millionth of a meter, and a human hair is 75 to 100 microns wide. The big clusters suggested the powder was far less than weapons grade.   Private experts disagree on just how much less. Ken Alibek, a former Soviet germ official who is now president of Advanced Biosystems, a consulting company in Manassas, Va., called the Daschle anthrax mediocre.   'It was not done with a regular industrial process,' Dr. Alibek said in an interview. 'Maybe it's homemade.' ...    But William C. Patrick III, a scientist who made germ weapons for the American military and is now a private consultant on biological defense, rated the Daschle anthrax as 7 on a scale of 10.    'It's relatively high grade,' Patrick said, 'but not weapons grade.' (48)

    Dr. Spertzel, on the other hand, remains more impressed with the quality of the product. Perhaps everyone would agree, however, that there is much information that has not yet been disclosed about the process used to weaponize the anthrax, and perhaps that is as it should be.

Motive: The reason Leahy and Daschle were targeted

    The letters to the news organizations were mailed -- coincidentally or not -- on September 17 or September 18, the day the Camp David Accord had been signed in 1978 and then approved the next day by the Israeli knesset.(49) The letter read:


    Taking into account the fact that there was no mail postmarked with a Trenton postmark on Columbus Day, October 8, the letter to Senator Tom Daschle postmarked October 9 may actually have been mailed October 6. October 6 was the day Anwar Sadat was assassinated for his role in the Camp David Accord. (Sadat was assassinated on October 6, which was Armed Forces Day. He was killed during an annual holiday parade which marks the day Egypt made a critical successful surprise attack on Israel during the 1973 war). (50)

    The note read:


    In an interview broadcast on al-Jazeera television on October 7, 2001 -- which was about when the second letter saying "Death to America'" and "Death to Israel" was mailed -- Ayman Zawahiri echoed a familiar refrain sounded by Bin Laden:

"O people of the U.S., can you ask yourselves a question: Why all this enmity for the United States and Israel? Your government supports the corrupt governments in our countries."(52)

    Senator Daschle is the majority leader of the Senate, which approves appropriations that support the governments in countries such as Egypt, Israel and Pakistan. Senator Leahy is Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, which has oversight jurisdiction over the FBI and INS. (53) That role alone would explain why Senatory Leahy was targeted as a symbol. But to more fully appreciate why Leahy -- a human rights advocate and liberal democrat -- might have been targeted as a symbol, it is important to know that Senator Leahy is head of the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, the panel in charge of aid to Egypt and Israel. That aid goes to the core of Al Qaeda's complaint against the United States. (The portion going to Egypt and Israel constitutes, by far, the largest portion of US foreign aid, and most of that is for military and security purposes.)(54) Pakistan is now a grudging ally in the "war against terrorism" largely due to the US Aid it now receives in exchange for that cooperation. In September 2001, the press in the US and in muslim countries discussed the waiver of the curbs under the Leahy Law in light of the war against terror.(55)

   The "Leahy Law" plays a key role in the secret "rendering" of Egyptian Islamic Jihad (Al Qaeda) operatives to countries like Egypt, Jordan and Algeria where they are allegedly tortured. Although humanitarian in its intent, the law permits continued appropriations to military and security units who conduct torture in the event of "extraordinary circumstances." According to the New York Times,

"Egypt's intelligence service has a reputation for being among the most formidable and ruthless in the Middle East, and several of those arrested in other countries have been sent to Egypt for interrogation or trial. According to evidence gathered for a 1999 trial in Egypt of more than 100 defendants from the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the intelligence agents regularly used torture to obtain confessions from suspected terrorists."(56)

    A video clip dealing with the rise of militant Islam in Egypt features a jailed Zawahiri in the early 1980s ferociously condemning torture and other human rights violations by the Egyptian government.(57)

    After 9/11, national security interests sometimes have been deemed to override such concern for human rights. (US officials recently complained about an Egyptian-American academic who has been imprisoned, but Al Qaeda/Egyptian Islamic Jihad operatives have not merited our concern). (58) Dr. Ayman Zawahiri's associates and even his brother have been spirited off by jet planes to destinations where interrogations might be more fruitful.

    In a videotape that circulated in the summer of 2001, Zawahiri said

"In Egypt they put a lot of people in jails -- some sentenced to be hanged. And in the Egyptian jails, there is a lot of killing and torture. All this happens under the supervision of America."(59)

    One associate of Zawahiri was secretly grabbed in southeast Asia and turned over to Egypt, and a Yemeni microbiologist was seized in Pakistan in October and turned over to Jordan.(60) At the time Ayman Zawahiri was getting his biological weapons program in full swing, his brother Mohammed was picked up in the United Arab Emirates and secretly rendered to Egyptian security forces.(61) According to his recent autobiography, Zawahiri himself reportedly was tortured while imprisoned after the assassination of Anwar Sadat.

    The appropriations to these military and security units have prevented Al Qaeda from achieving its aims. Zawahiri discusses this torture, the secret rendering of jihadists, and the US Aid and cooperation with Egyptian and other military and security forces throughout his 2001 book "Knights Under the Prophet's Banner."(62) The people who suggest that Al Qaeda would have had no motivation to send weaponized anthrax to Senators Daschle and Leahy -- because they are liberal -- are mistaken. The main goal of Dr. Zawahiri is to topple President Mubarak. He views the US Aid as the chief obstacle and is indifferent to this country's labels of conservative and liberal.

One islamist summarized why the anthrax was sent:in an ode "To Anthrax" on November 1, 2001:

"O, anthrax, despite, your wretchedness, you have sewn horror in the heart of the lady of arrogance, of tyranny, of boastfulness!"(63)

 Modus Operandi: Egyptian Islamists' earlier WTC letter bombs

    This was not the first time the Egyptian islamists sent letter bombs to newspaper offices in connection with an attack on the World Trade Center. A dozen letter bombs were sent to newspaper offices in New York City and Washington, D.C. in December 1996/January 1997. The letter bombs were sent from Alexandria, Egypt, to the London, New York, and Washington, D.C. offices of the newspaper Al Hayat.(64) The paper, owned by a member of the Saudi royal family, is the leading international Arabic-language newspaper.(65)

    Two people were injured when one bomb went off in London. Bombs were also sent to the prison officials at the Kansas prison where the WTC plotters were being jailed. (66) The blind sheik the previous year had given an interview complaining of mistreatment by prison officials and asking that he be avenged. The key WTC bomber imprisoned at Leavensworth had also complained of mistreatment and the conditions.(67)

    One commentator has noted:

    “It has been stated that the tactics of enclosing warnings in the letters shows the attacker did not intend to commit murder. This is nonsense. The death of Robert Stevens was public knowledge before the Senate letters were mailed. The attacker knew full well that he was placing large numbers of people in deadly peril and acknowledged this in the text of the Senate letters. As Brian Jenkins [Deputy Director of Kroll Associates] has famously noted, 'terrorists want a lot of people watching, not a lot of people dead.' The letter tactics were chosen to maximize the scope of terrorism, not to limit or avoid casualties."(68)

     Sending poisonous letter bombs is part of Al Qaeda's modus operandi in that the Al Qaeda operations manual, the most recent version on CD-ROM, had a chapter on "Poisonous Letter." (69) As with the insertion of biologicals into food, the key is mass panic, not mass casualty.

     Al Qaeda is concerned with handling its efforts in such a way as to develop and maintain the Arab hatred of the US and Israel -- and that requires a delicate balance and choice of suitable targets. Zawahiri divines from his religious texts that it is moral to kill American civilians on the grounds that they stood silent as taxpayers while US-bought weapons were used on Palestinians. The al Qaeda shura (policy-making council), however, may deem that Al Qaeda needs to choose the methods of attack carefully so that they are both are effective and calculated to gain the support of others. (Gassing the Kurds ultimately was a public relations debacle for Saddam once the world stopped looking the other way). Just recently Zawahiri was invited to participate by telephone or internet in a conference of islamists in Cairo. The seeds he has planted are bearing fruit. (70) Where there are democratic processes, islamists have made substantial recent gains, to include in Pakistan, Morocco, Bahrain and Turkey.

    When Zawahiri's Islamic Jihad or related egyptian islamist group (led by the blind sheik) sent letter bombs to newspaper offices in Washington, D.C. and NYC in 1997 -- to include the "Parole Officer" and other prison officials where a key WTC bomber was imprisoned -- it apparently was because Al Hayat didn't support the radical islamist cause and because the WTC prisoners had complained of mistreatment. Why would the Islamic Jihad target AMI, the publisher of the National Enquirer? Just a dispute with a landlady over a security deposit? (The wife of the AMI owner was the landlady for some of the hijackers). (71) Was there an early first letter to AMI so that the hijackers would be in a position to receive feedback on the effectiveness of the weaponized anthrax? Or had Bat Boy given Bin Laden the finger prior to 9/11? What coverage did those publications give the blind sheik and the WTC bombers? The FBI is investigating and went back to AMI.(72)



    In the anthrax mailings, Dr. Zawahiri appears to have accomplished the attack on the US "structure" he intended.(115) With the planes, Al Qaeda struck the US trade dominance (World Trade Center) and its military might (Pentagon). If you credit Zubaydah (rather than Atta's roommate Ramzi), Al Qaeda was intending to strike the White House with the plane that went down in Pennsylvania.

    With the anthrax he appears to have rounded out the field that he imagines provides support to Israel -- the legislative branch and media. In addition to the Senate majority leader, anthrax was mailed to the position symbolic of the 50 billion in appropriations that has been given to Israel since 1947 (and the equally substantial $2 billion annually in aid that has been keeping Mubarak in power in Egypt and the militant islamists out of power).

    The statement this June by the spokesperson who explained that Al Qaeda had a right to kill 4 million and had the right to use biological or chemical weapons needs to be factored into the bureaucratic reckoning.(116) The potential downside of not discovering the perpetrator is far greater if that turns out to be the motivation.(117)
The articles below document how Philip Zack harassed two colleagues of Arab descent and got away with it. He was filmed by security cameras going into the Anthrax lab late at night over a year after he no longer worked there.

The US media ignores this and now blames Iraq...

If you don't believe this, check out the articles in the links below and make up your own mind.
September-October 2002, pages 18-19

Special Report

While Media Spotlights One Anthrax Suspect, Another Is Too Hot to Touch

By Delinda Curtiss Hanley

America’s mainstream press finds some stories too hot to handle. One of the most egregious examples of this is its coverage of the hunt for the perpetrator of the post-9/11 anthrax letters—a matter of concern to all Americans. After an initial flurry of reports, the media inexplicably ignored the FBI’s laborious search for the person who last fall mailed anthrax-laced letters to news organizations and the Capitol Hill offices of Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle (S-SD) and Sen. Patrick J. Leahy (D-VT).

Did the U.S. media merely lose interest after the government failed to find an Iraqi or al-Qaeda connection, and therefore could not link the postal terrorism to Sept. 11? Or was the press warned off the sensitive subject? After months of silence, in August the subject of the anthrax attacks once again hit the newspapers and network TV stations. The scientist in the spotlight, however, may be little more than a hapless “fall guy.”

Five people died and more than a dozen more were made seriously ill from exposure to the deadly Ames variety of anthrax. Americans across the country feared opening their mail. It’s a safe bet that, had a Muslim- or Arab-American scientist been the prime suspect, press coverage would have been unrelenting.

Apparently journalists’ interests weren’t sufficiently aroused by the FBI profile of a disgruntled American bioweapons scientist who may have launched the lethal attack merely to help his career and increase government funding in his area of expertise. This homegrown terrorist murdered innocents, sowed fear across the United States, and created chaos in the U.S. and international postal services, but for 10 months he stayed out of the news.

The still-unknown culprit also sought to throw suspicions on Muslim or Arab terrorists. First there was the timing of the letters—days after the Sept. 11 attack. The first anthrax letters, as well as some hoax letters, were mailed Sept. 18 to 25. The first public report of an anthrax case in Florida was not until Oct. 4.

Then there was the text: the letters clearly intended to imply the writer was of Middle Eastern origin and included deliberate misspellings (the letters suggested taking “penacilin”), a Star of David, as well as threats to Israel, Chicago’s Sears Tower, and President George W. Bush. Someone obviously hoped to focus attention on an Arab scapegoat. The perpetrator added to the already terrible woes of Arabs and Muslims living in the United States post-Sept. 11.

The letters could very well have sparked internment camps for Arab Americans, who already faced backlash from the Sept. 11 terror attacks. The U.S. might have launched a military attack on Iraq, as rumors circulated that Saddam Hussain was to blame for the anthrax attacks. Fortunately, early on federal investigators discounted the Arab terrorist theory—although plenty of outsiders still can’t give it up.

The FBI narrowed its search for the terrorist to 200 scientists who had worked with the U.S. anthrax program in the last five years. The investigation focused on Fort Detrick’s Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Maryland, the military’s premier bioterrorism complex, and one of only four laboratories with the capability for weaponizing anthrax. Only 50 scientists had access to the Ames strain found in all the letter samples, and perhaps only 30 knew the particular technique used to weaponize the anthrax used in the letters, a technique developed in Ft. Detrick by William Patrick. The FBI interviewed former and current bioterrorism scientists, and conducted polygraph tests and home searches.

A Feb. 26 New York Times article cast suspicion on a Somali Muslim student at an unnamed Midwestern university. It was soon confirmed, however, that the student could not have had any knowledge of Patrick’s weaponization technique.

This August—nearly a year after the anthrax attack—the story hit the front pages again. The FBI’s second highly visible examination of Steven J. Hatfill’s apartment was conducted with reporters, cameras and a news helicopter hovering overhead.

Although Hatfill once worked at the Fort Detrick lab, his lawyer, Victor Glasberg, said the scientist “did not do anthrax work. Steve has never worked with anthrax.” After a series of anthrax hoaxes, including a package that “coincidentally” arrived at B’nai B’rith headquarters in Washington while a terrorism seminar was under way nearby, Hatfill in 1999 did commission William Patrick to write a report on how anthrax could be sent through the mail.

“Steve’s life has been devastated by a drumbeat of innuendo, implication and speculation,” according to an Aug. 11 Washington Post interview. FBI leaks to the press have cost Hatfill one job and suspension from another. Someone in the FBI even gave ABC News the manuscript of a novel Hatfill had been writing about biological terrorism that could have come only from Hatfield’s computer, seized in the FBI’s second search. Fed up with the FBI’s damaging leaks to the media, Hatfill held a news conference Aug. 11 to tell reporters that he is a loyal American and had nothing to do with the deadly anthrax mailings. Nevertheless, his is the only name that has appeared in print recently.

Internet articles claim the government is afraid to arrest the anthrax culprit because he knows too much about U.S. bioweapons. Is Hatfill the bioterrorist or is he a stooge? Is the government protecting one of its own? Are the media and the government using Dr. Hatfill to take the fall for another scientist?

Before the investigation of Dr. Hatfill captured national headlines, another insider scientist had come under FBI scrutiny without much media fanfare. It was easy to miss the few stories published in January 2002 about Lt. Col. Philip Zack, who, like Hatfill, also had access to a well-equipped laboratory with lax security. Zack, moreover, actually worked with military-grade anthrax at Fort Detrick.

Dr. Zack left Fort Detrick in December 1991 amid allegations of unprofessional conduct. The Jewish scientist and others were accused of harassing their co-worker, Dr. Ayaad Assaad, until the Egyptian-born American scientist quit, according to an article in Connecticut’s The Hartford Courant, the country’s oldest newspaper in continuous publication. Dr. Assaad sued the Army, claiming discrimination after Zack’s badgering.

Although Dr. Zack was let go, he returned frequently to visit friends, and used the Fort Detrick laboratories for “off-the-books” work after hours. After reports of missing biological specimens—including anthrax, Ebola and the simian AIDs virus—came to light, as well as reports of unauthorized research, a review of surveillance camera tapes recorded Dr. Zack entering the lab late on the night of Jan. 23, 1992, according to The Hartford Courant report. He was let in that night by Marian Rippy, a lab pathologist and close friend of Zack’s, although she now says she has no memory of the evening. She did say that Zack occasionally visited and that other friends let him in.

Inexplicably, the national press ignored these documented unauthorized visits to a top-secret government lab embroiled in the anthrax attacks. Did journalists fear being labeled anti-Semitic for casting suspicions on a Jewish scientist?

Soon after the 9/11 attack, a long, typed anonymous letter was sent to Quantico Marine Base accusing the long-suffering Assaad, Zack’s victim in 1991, of plotting terrorism. This letter was received before the anthrax letters or disease were reported. The timing of the note makes its author a serious suspect in the anthrax attacks. The sender also displayed considerable knowledge of Dr. Assaad, his work, his personal life and a remarkable premonition of the upcoming bioterrorism attack.

After interviewing Assaad on Oct. 2, 2001, the FBI decided the letter was a hoax. While major newspapers noted that an anonymous letter had accused Dr. Assaad of bioterrorism, none followed up on it after his innocence was established. Zack’s name never surfaced again as one of the 30 suspects.

When the Washington Report asked Barbara Hatch Rosenberg, Ph.D., a biological arms control expert at the State University of New York, if the allegations regarding Dr. David Hatfill now took the heat off Lt. Col. Philip Zack, she replied, “Zack has NEVER been under suspicion as perpetrator of the anthrax attack.”

It is hard to believe that, with his connection to Fort Detrick, Dr. Zack is not one of the 20 to 50 scientists under intense investigation.

When asked if Hatfill was part of the group that ganged up on Dr. Ayaad Assaad, Dr. Rosenberg answered, “Hatfill was NOT one of the persecutors of Assaad.”

She is convinced that the FBI knows who sent the anthrax letters but isn’t arresting him because he knows too much about U.S. secret biological weapons research and production. But she isn’t naming names. Neither is Dr. Assaad, who did not return calls from the Washington Report.

Another person not naming names is New York Times reporter Nicholas D. Kristof. In a series of articles published on July 2, 12, and 19, however, he called the anthrax perpetrator “Mr. Z” (not “Mr. H”). Kristof’s description of “Mr. Z” sounds very much more like Dr. Zack than Dr. Hatfill.

The New York Times journalist reported that “Mr. Z” was caught with a girlfriend after hours in Fort Detrick. According to Kristof, “Mr. Z” talked about the importance of his field and his own status in it, and often used the B’nai B’rith attack as an example of how anthrax attacks might happen. He also “had a penchant for dropping Arab names” when he discussed the possibility of anthrax attacks.

Is the anthrax culprit, or “Mr. Z,” actually Dr. Zack or Dr. Hatfill, or another undisclosed scientist? Is Dr. Hatfill being framed while Dr. Zack stays out of the spotlight? Will the investigation simply peter out without an arrest? Are the U.S. government and the media engaging in a shameful cover-up?

It remains to be seen whether the anthrax story will share the fate of the one-day wonders hidden on the back pages of America’s mainstream newspapers—whose publishers shy away from articles they fear may bring a spate of hate mail, charges of “anti-Semitism,” or threats to end advertising or subscriptions.

Another too-hot-to-handle story published in the Oct. 31, 2001 Miami Herald described an FBI search for six “Middle-Eastern looking men with Israeli passports stopped in the Midwest the previous weekend.” The six men stopped by police were traveling in groups of three in two white sedans. The article noted that, despite law enforcement agencies being on high alert after the Sept. 11 attacks, the men were released—even though they had in their possession photographs and descriptions of a nuclear power plant in Florida and the Trans-Alaska pipeline.

As a result of the scare, the Federal Aviation Administration imposed flight restrictions around nuclear plants nationwide, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission advised the nation’s 103 nuclear plants to fortify security.

This news story vanished, but an urgent terrorism alert sounded by Attorney General John Ashcroft received much media attention. Somehow the new alert now was based largely on a message transmitted by an Osama bin Laden supporter in Canada to Afghanistan. That message referred to a major event that was going to take place “down south.” Ashcroft warned that Americans at home or abroad could be struck by another terrorist attack. Fortunately, however, as of this writing that hasn’t happened.

An Oct. 26, 2001 article in The Jerusalem Post reported that five Israeli men with box-cutters, multiple passports and $4,000 cash detained in New Jersey on Sept. 11, the day of the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, would be deported back to Israel for immigration violations. Those men were seen laughing and posing for photographs with the smoking Twin Towers in the background. The U.S. press also deemed that story not fit to print.

“Sharing” Intelligence

A proposed joint U.S.-Israeli anti-terror office might make things easier for other Jewish Americans or Israelis who run afoul of the law post-9/11. According to a report published in the June 29 Washington Times—but never followed up by other U.S. newspapers—Israeli Brig. Gen. David Tzur and Minister of Interior Security Uzi Landau met with U.S. officials to suggest a Washington, DC-based office to fight terrorism. The office would maintain an almost instantaneous communications link between the U.S. Department of Homeland Defense and the Israeli government on matters of homeland security. Visa policies, terrorist profiles and virtually all other internal security data—except classified intelligence—would be swapped via computer, fax and telephone.

Landau told the Washington Times that Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-CA), House Majority Whip Tom DeLay (R-TX), and Rep. Curt Weldon (R-PA) are especially receptive to the idea. This alarming proposal soon vanished from the media’s radar screen.

These same Israeli visitors eagerly provided President Bush with “evidence” that Palestinian chairman Arafat was involved in terrorism. Not surprisingly, that information did make national headlines, and drastically altered Bush’s long-awaited Middle East foreign policy speech on June 24.

Delinda Curtiss Hanley is the news editor of the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs.

Alexander Cockburn:
"The purveyor of anthrax may have been a former government scientist of Jewish ethnic extraction with a record of baiting a colleague of Arab origins, acting with the intent to blame the anthrax on Muslim terrorists."

This story is well documented in the following Seattle Times and two Hartford-Courant articles:,0,6753520.story?coll=hc%252,0,7015666.story?coll=hc%252

by this thing here
>Upon the merger in 1998, the most senior planners in Al Qaeda relating to tactics and biological weapons were Egyptian Islamic Jihad, to include Ayman Zawahiri, Mohammed Atef, and Abu Khabab<

please explain the connection between mohammed atef, and biological weapons, and egyptian islamic jihad.

atef was a saudi. he studied urban planning in germany, at the same time he was supposedly in an al-qaida cell.

i also find the reasons for terrorists specifically targeting those senators to be really weak and forced.

plus, here's what's really stupid. so islamic terrorists get a hold of highly advanced, weapons grade anthrax, then fly all the way to america with it, taking elaborate precautions that it doesn't get released, hiding it somehow from customs inspections, and then release it here in the mail? those letters weren't mailed from overseas...

and what's more, i'm assuming the "aimes strain" refers exclusively to the specific anthrax bacterium, and does not at all mean that it is a bio-weapon. i'm assuming one could make a bio-weapon out of many different strains. the point is, so what if the aimes strain can be found in england or other places, because a WEAPONIZED ANTHRAX WAS HERE IN THE U.S. INSIDE THE ENVELOPES. just because you can find the strain overseas DOESN'T MEAN the weaponized aimes strain antrax also came from overseas.

anthrax doesn't automatically become a bio-weapon. nobody can grow a batch of it in a petri dish and automatically get a bio-weapon. in order to get a bio-weapon, especially the highly advanced kind that was apprently in the envelopes, coated so that it could be inhaled easily and resisit static, you need some very specialized equipment and know-how. i have a hard time accepting the notion that it's easy, sorta a hobby that anyone can do, like some high school kid growing mold for a science class, to make living bacterium into a weapon that floats into people's lungs.
by Ross E. Getman
"Ayman" (continued)

    1. The FBI's Profile.
The FBI profile, according to early reports, concluded that the letter writer is an American but is foreign-born (and not a native english speaker). (73) The emphasis in the press reports, however, has always been on the suggestion that the mailer likely is "domestic" rather than foreign -- a lone, male scientist who works in a lab.
    Although the FBI profile has been widely criticized by experts and in editorials in the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, New York Post, Washington Post, The Economist, The Weekly Standard, and other newspapers and magazines, it is more flexible than its critics imagine.(74) The Amerithrax profile of a loner with a grudge permits a variety of motivations, including sympathy with the Islamist cause.(75) It is worth noting that the FBI even uses the word "domestic" to refer to Americans sympathetic with an extremist islamic cause. The Washington Post explained in late October:
"Everything seems to lean toward a domestic source," one senior official said. 'Nothing seems to fit with an overseas terrorist type operation.'   The FBI and U.S. Postal Inspection Service are considering a wide range of domestic possibilities, including associates of right-wing hate groups and U.S. residents sympathetic to the causes of Islamic extremists."(76)
     Indeed, as Attorney General Ashroft has said, an “either-or matrix” is not useful.(77) By way of example, was long-time Al Qaeda operative and former US Army sergeant Ali Mohamed "foreign" or "domestic"? Are the young men from Buffalo -- most of whom were US citizens and born here -- "foreign" or "domestic"? Domestic terrorism expert Mark Potok of the Southern Poverty Law Center has never departed from his view noted last October -- that a domestic terrorist (in the conventional sense of native-born and right-wing) is not responsible.(78)
    The FBI's stock profile concerning anthrax was a lone, unstable individual -- last October, the profilers pretty much just reached into the filing cabinet. Surprisingly, the profilers did not adjust their thinking based on 9/11 or the intelligence that Zawahiri had obtained anthrax for the purpose of weaponizing it for use against US targets.(79) In any event, FBI profiler James R. Fitzgerald, head of FBI's Behavioral Analysis Unit, can be forgiven his flawed profile in early November because such a profile is far more useful in supporting warrants in the US in connection with a variety of leads that prudently needed to be pursued.
    One intelligence official reportedly has suggested that one reason that the FBI has not emphasized the possibility of a foreign source is that it might require UN involvement in the investigation pursuant to certain biological weapons protocols.(80)

    2. The hijacker Ahmed's blackened leg lesion.
One of the hijackers, Ahmed Alhaznawi, went to the ER on June 25 with what now appears to have been cutaneous anthrax, according to Dr. Tsonas, the doctor who treated him, and other experts.(81) Alhaznawi had just arrived in the country on June 8. His exposure perhaps related to a camp he had been in Afghanistan. He said he got the blackened gash-like lesion when he bumped his leg on a suitcase two months earlier. (82) Two months earlier he had been in camp (according to a videotape he later made serving as his last Will and Testament).(83) There are some spiders that on rare occasions bite and cause such a blackened eschar (notably the Brown Recluse Spider found in some parts of the United States).(84)
     The FBI merely says no anthrax was found where the hijackers were.(85) (The FBI tested the crash sites where the planes came down and found no traces of anthrax). No doubt there are some other diseases that lead to similar sores. It is reasonable to credit, though, that it was cutaneous anthrax considering all the circumstances.(86) Although it may have been unrelated, Atta later came in to a pharmacy with red hands as if he had been working with a chlorine bleach solution, which is used to decontaminate anthrax.(87)

    3. The inquiries about cropdusters.
Mohammed Atta and Zacarias Moussaiou reportedly made inquiries about cropdusters.(88) Ahmad Ressam, an Al Qaeda terrorist caught in the United States, revealed that Bin Laden was personally interested in using low flying aircraft to dispense biological agents. (89)
    The CIA, in an October 2002 assessment, reports that, Iraq, for example, "already has produced modified drop-tanks that can disperse biological or chemical agents effectively.  Before the Gulf war, the Iraqis successfully experimented with aircraft-mounted spray tanks capable of releasing up to 2,000 liters of an anthrax simulant over a target area.  Iraq also has modified commercial crop sprayers successfully and tested them with an anthrax simulant delivered by helicopters."(90)
    Anthrax likely can be delivered using the nozzle set-up that some USDA official says Atta imagined (as explained by Secretary Cohen some years ago). Indeed, Secretary Cohen's remarks were found in the Kabul home with papers relating to the aerial delivery of anthrax.(91)
    Some investigators on the team prosecuting Zacarias Moussouai think he wasn't expected to take part in the 9/11 plan as such, but was expected instead to use a cropduster. (French intelligence suggests instead that there was a plan to hijack an international airliner.) It's also unknown what role Atta's roommate, pilot Ramzi Binalshibh, would have played if he had succeeded on one of his four attempts to get into the country. (Ramzi Binalshibh was Atta's former roommate in Germany and was recently captured in Karachi, Pakistan). On the other hand, perhaps the cropdusters related to a chemical or nerve agent. Others reasonably suggest it related to use as a flying fuel bomb. Others even reasonably question that there were ever such inquiries. Based on the interrogation of Ramzi Binalshibh, it now appears that the 9/11 planners lost confidence in Moussaoui's discretion, and intended to use him only as a fallback. Whatever the reason for the inquiries -- assuming for the sake of argument they occurred -- perhaps they ran out of pilots (due to Zacarias Moussaiou's arrest and Ramzi Binalshibh's inability to get into the country).(92)

    4. Atta's travels to Prague and the alleged Iraq connection.
According to some reports, Atta met in Prague with an Iraqi case handler and obtained the anthrax from Iraq then. (93) The reported transfer of a vial of anthrax, however, is totally unproven (regardless whether the story traces back to Israeli intelligence or instead traces back to Egyptian intelligence). The origin of the story seems to have been based simply on speculation of what might have occurred (at a meeting that has not yet even been established to have occurred).
    In contrast to what most of the senior Czech officials have said, the Prague Post quoted the director general of the Czech foreign intelligence service UZSI (Office of Foreign Relations and Information), Frantisek Bublan, denying the much-touted meeting -- and he also now may (or perhaps not) have been joined by the Czech President.(94) But never let it be said the White House has been consistent on the issue either.(95) Until and unless those Czech officials still claiming there was a meeting produce a photo, we are left with a mush of conflicting and inconclusive reports. The bottom-line is that Al Qaeda did not need Iraq to commit this crime and it is more prudent to limit the conclusion to Al Qaeda's involvement absent additional evidence.
    Mr. Pearl, a former Assistant Secretary of Defense, says there is "powerful evidence" showing Iraq is giving biological and chemical weapons to Al Qaeda.(96) There are some detailed reports by defectors concerning Al Qaeda's coordination with Saddam on biological and chemical weapons beginning in 1998, but those reports all depend on the reliability of those defectors -- the briefs made by President Bush and Tony Blair lacked a "smoking gun" in this regard.(97) The presence of facilities does not tell you much. Implied threats that biological weapons will be used in defense are to be expected given that the US has said it is going to attack Iraq (based on its worst fears).
     A detailed argument relating to the connections between Iraq and Al Qaeda can be found online in the trillion dollar complaint against Iraq brought by the law firm Kreindler & Kreindler in connection with 9/11.(98)

     5. The "Hatfill Theory".
The FBI official in charge of the investigation, Agent Van Harp, has said in a USA Today interactive chat and elsewhere that the speculation about foot-dragging by the FBI has no basis. As explained in a Wall Street Journal article dated March 26, which was based on information provided by the FBI, the reason for the delay has related to the many scientific, safety and security issues implicated.(99) He emphatically denied the suggestion by Dr. Hatch Rosenberg (first made in a BBC interview) that it was a CIA experiment gone awry.(100) He said all the names of the folks submitted by Dr. Hatch Rosenberg and her contacts in the field had been investigated and did not pan out. (Apparently, five acquaintances in the field had reached the same conclusion and Dr. Rosenberg served as their spokesperson.) The recent hoopla has not produced any publicly known evidence relevant to the anthrax mailings that leads to a different conclusion. Evidence relating to polygraphs or use of bloodhounds under these circumstances are inadmissible precisely because they are unreliable.(101)
    Hatfill’s statements were very eloquent, as were the comments of his attorney.(102) The commentary critical of the Rosenberg conjecture and press about Hatfill tends to strike a Richard Jewell theme.(103) Most of all, Dr. Rosenberg's assertion in her February and June analysis that the FBI has determined that an American made the mailing or has excluded a foreign connection is simply mistaken and contradicted by on-the-record statements and real world events (such as the November 1, 2002 press conference given by FBI Director Mueller and marathon month-long interrogation of a top Pakistani surgeon).

    6. Was the letter to AMI the Jennifer Lopez letter?
One unresolved question relates to how the anthrax was transmitted to AMI in Florida. (AMI publishes the National Enquirer and other tabloids). Phil Brennan, a conservative commentator who knew the two victims there, reports that he is confident that the letter transmitting the anthrax was sent before 9/11. It consisted, he says, of a goofy love letter to Jennifer Lopez, and included an open soap packet and a cheap Star of David charm.(105) (According to an early National Enquirer report, it also included a cigar).(106) He says Stevens held it up to his face and then put it down on the keyboard (where traces of anthrax were found). Mr. Brennan very well may be right, which would clinch Al Qaeda's responsibility. Note that the publisher's wife was the real estate broker who rented to two of the hijackers. Small world, eh?(107)
    The key expert evidence on this issue of the Jennifer Lopez letter thus far is the New England Journal of Medicine in which Stevens’ doctor concludes that the letter, opened 9/19 and resulting in symptoms appear 9/30, evidenced an incubation period consistent with inhalational anthrax.(108) (He refers to the 1979 accidental release in Russia). A recent CDC report discusses a second letter of possible interest thought to have been opened on September 25 by a different woman who was exposed.(109) The jury will have to remain out unless and until there is more information on the letter(s) that transmitted the anthrax to AMI. The FBI now has gone back to AMI.(110) The FBI reports that the letter may have been opened in the mailroom -- with the product falling on copy paper that then contaminating all the xerox machines in the building.(111)

    7. The Fort Lee, New Jersey $100,000 processor
    One potential lead reported in the press concerns a $100,000 piece of equipment bought by someone from Pakistan who has pled guilty to a check kiting scheme used to raise the funds used to purchase the processor. (112) A senior expert at the DOD has said that commercially available equipment used to make powdered milk could be used to make powderized anthrax.(113)

    8. The Pakistan anthrax
    The three reported "confirmed cases" in Karachi, Pakistan also are worthy of note. Although there were 100 other hoaxes, including hoax letters sent to other Jang newspaper branches, there was no report about the retesting of letters at the main branch of Jang, Habib International bank and Dell Computer. As of a November 12, 2001, the well-regarded private hospital that had done the lab testing had not yet provided the samples to the Pakistan government for retesting. (114)
by Ross E. Getman
The authorities cited in the "Ayman" are listed below. For your convenience in checking facts, they are linked in the article available online.


1Jonathan Rauch, "Does Al Qaeda Have Anthrax? Better Assume So," National Journal, June 1, 2002.

"The Anthrax Trail,"Al Qaeda is still a bioterrorist threat," Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2002.

David Tell, "Remember anthrax? Despite the evidence, the FBI won't let go of it's 'lone American' theory," Weekly Standard, April 29, 2002.

Jack Kelly, "Their Faraway eyes", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 14, 2002.

Reed Irvine, "Notes from the Editor's Cuff", AIM Report, August 28, 2002.

"Anthrax probe ignoring foreign links?: Critics question FBI's emphasis on homegrown scientist,", October 8, 2002.

"Al Qaeda's Anthrax: Is Osama behind the mail attacks?" MIT Technology Review, April 16, 2002.

"Biodefense," at Biodefense Sprectrum, Inc. website.

Phil Brennan, "Alibek Doubts FBI Claims on Hatfill," Newsmax, October 3, 2002.

Littwin: "Anthrax trail on wrong path?" Rocky Mountain News, September 5, 2002.

Cliff Kincaid, "Saddam Hussein, Al Qaeda, Anthrax West Nile Virus, and a Scapegoat named Hatfill."

Ely Karmon, "The Anthrax Campaign: An Interim Analysis," October 30, 2001.

"Cheney: 'Reasonable' to assume anthrax cases linked to terrorists, " CNN, October 12, 2001.

"Gorbachev: Terrorist using anthrax, " CNN, dated October 16, 2001.

"CIA Officer Warns of Terrorist Strikes in U.S.,", November 25, 2002 .

Bob Woodward, Bush at War, at 248 (2002).

Jennifer Barrett, "Newsweek Poll: Bin Laden to Blame For Anthrax,"

3 Laurie Garrett, "Clash of agencies hampered inquiry into anthrax mystery, " Newsday, July 23, 2002.

See also Dan Eggen, "FBI Working to Replicate Type of Anthrax Used in Last Year's Deadly Mailings," Washington Post, November 1, 2002.

4 David Johnston and William J. Broad, "Anthrax in Mail Was Newly Made, Investigators Say," New York Times, June 22 2002. See also Judith Miller, Fox News interview, July 2, 2002.

5 Eleanor Clift , "Still Looking For Suspects," Newsweek (June 24, 2002 issue).

6. Yousef Bodansky, Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared War On America, at 326.

7. "Osama bought a batch for 10G," The New York Post, October 24, 2001.

"Bin Laden Bought Anthrax, E-Coli and Salmonella, Aide Tells Court," The Mirror, October 25, 2001.

Simon Reeve, The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama Bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism, at 262 (1999).

8. "Did Bin Laden buy bioterror: trial testimony says he did," San Francisco Chronicle, October 21, 2001.

9. "FBI & Bush Administration Sued Over Anthrax Documents," Judicial Watch Press Release, June 7, 2002.

10. "Islamic Jihad 'Confessions' Described", March 6, 1999.

11. Ibid.

12. Scott Baldauf, "The 'cave man' and Al Qaeda: A Pakistani journalist who repeatedly interviewed bin Laden says he's not the terror group's main force,"Christian Science Monitor, October 31, 2001.

"Arab elite warms to Al Qaeda leaders," Christian Scientist Monitor, July 30, 2002

13. Peter Bergen, Holy War, Inc., at 205-207 (2001) (paperback)

14. Betsy Hiel, "Egyptian Islamic Jihad linked to bin Laden," Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, September 15, 2002.

Rohan Gunaratna, Inside Al Qaeda, at 26 (2002).

15. "The Man Behind Bin Laden," New Yorker, September 16, 2002.

16. Alan Cullison and Andrew Higgins, "Computer in Kabul holds chilling memos," Wall Street Journal, December 31, 2001.

17. Judith Miller, "Holy Warriors: Killing for the Glory of God, in a Land Far From Home," New York Times, January 16, 2001.

18. Ibid.

19. "Disturbing scenes of death show capability with chemical gas," CNN, dated August 19, 2002.

"Bin Laden Paid For Bali Bombing," FoxNews, October 20, 2002.

Judith Miller, "Qaeda Videos Seem to Show Chemical Tests," New York Times, August 19, 2002.

"Tapes shed new light on bin Laden's network," CNN, August 19, 2002.

UK: Three Charged Over Terror Plot, CNN, November 17, 2002.

"Cyanide attack" foiled in Italy, BBC News, February 20, 2002.

"Italian police explore Al Qaeda links cyanide plot," Christian Science Monitor, March 7, 2002.

20. "The Merchants of Mass Destruction," CBS News, December 19, 2001.

"Vials Marked 'Anthrax' and 'Sarin Gas' Found At Abandoned al-Qaeda Camps," Biohazard News, November 22, 2001

21. "U.S. Monitors Kurdish Extremists", Foxnews, August 21, 2002.

22. "Bush Cancels Iraqi Strike," ABCNEWS August 20, 2002.

23. Reuters, "Al Qaeda tested germ weapons," New Zealand Herald, January 1, 2002.

"Report: Four Nations Thought to Have Smallpox Virus," Reuters, November 5, 2002

24. CBSNews, "Weapons Worries," July 18, 2002.

25. Judith Miller, "Lab Suggests Qaeda Planned to Build Arms, Officials Say," New York Times, September 14, 2002.

Agence France-Presse, "US finds Al-Qaeda lab built to produce anthrax: report," March 23, 2002.

"Al-Qaeda might have stockpiled anthrax spores," Times of India, December 10, 2001.

Tabassum Zakaria, "US: Al Qaeda Tried for Bio Weapons in Afghanistan," Reuters, July 17, 2002.

Jonathan Weisman, "Possible anthrax lab unearthed near Kandahar, USA Today, March 25, 2002.

"Al Qaeda: Alive and Killing," Newsweek, November 25, 2002.

26 "Al-Qaeda: Anthrax Found in Al-Qaeda home," Global Security Newswire, December 10, 2001.

27. Judith Miller, "Lab Suggests Qaeda Planned to Build Arms, Officials Say," New York Times, September 14, 2002.

28. Gary Jones, Mirror, November 19, 2001.

29 Kathy Gannon, "Taliban Showed Interest In Anthrax Research Lab. Scientists Say An Official Paid Frequent Visits" in The Boston Globe, November 22, 2001 (photo caption).

30. "US biological attack imminent - Taliban",, December 12, 2001.

"Walker Lindh: Al Qaeda planned more attacks," CNN, October 3, 2002.

31. Peter Waldman et al., "Sergeant Served U.S. Army and bin Laden, Showing Failings in FBI's Terror Policing," Wall Street Journal, November 26, 2001.

Dale Kasler, "Terrorist ruse hurt giving by Muslims" Sacramento Bee, October 25, 2001.

"Ex US soldier admits embassy bombings," BBC News, October 20, 2000.

32. John Sullivan and Joseph Neff, "An al Qaeda operative at Fort Bragg," Raleigh News & Observer, November 14, 2001.

Steven Emerson, American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us , 55-60 (2002)

33. Andrew Higgins, Alan Culli, "Saga of Dr. Zawahri Sheds Light On the Roots of al Qaeda Terror," Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2002.

34. (trillion dollar 9/11 complaint against Iraq recounts Zawahiri's visits to Iraq)

35. Jeffrey Bartholet, "Terrorist Sleeper Cells: A U.S.-Based Al Qaeda 'Sleeper Cell' Was Poised to Launch a Post-Sept. 11 Attack on a Major Washington Target; Would-Be Terrorists Went Underground or Fled U.S. Evidence Indicates Al Qaeda Had Russian Help Developing Anthrax; Al-Zawahiri Believed Involved in Bin Laden's Biological Weapons Program." Newsweek, December 9, 2001.

See also Ken Alibek, with Stephen Handelman, Biohazard: The Chilling True Story Of The Largest Weapons Program In The World -- Told From Inside By The Man Who Ran It, at 272 (1999) (paperback).

36. "Bravado--and blood--in Taliban territory" US News and World Report, November 12, 2001.

37. "Russia, Iraq and Other Potential Sources of Anthrax, Smallpox and Other Bioterrorist Weapons," Hearings Before the Committee On International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session, December 5, 2001.

38. Ibid. See "Iraqis 'infiltrated UK germ labs'", BBC News, November 16, 2002

39. Richard O. Spertzel, "U.S. Policy in Iraq: Next Steps", Hearings Before the Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Services," March 1, 2002.

Wendy Orent, "Anthrax in America," The New Republic, October 17, 2001

40. Milton Leitenberg, Biological Weapons and Bioterrorism in the First Years of the 21st Century (rev. July 10, 2002)" at pp. 23-33.

41. "Anthrax probe hits genetic dead end: Despite promise, gene analysis failing to help investigation," Associated Press, June 19, 2002.

The Institute For Genomic Research, Press Release.

42. Timothy D. Read, et al., "Comparative Genome Sequencing for Discovery of Novel Polymorphisms in Bacillus anthracis," Science, 296: 2028-2033 (May 9, 2002).

43. Dr. C.J. Peters, August 30, 2002 on PBS’ “Searching for Clues.”

44. Mark Schoofs, Gary Fields and Maureen Tkacik, "The Anthrax Probe Ranges Far and Wide As Investigators Scour Tips, Quotes & Research Trash for Leads," Wall Street Journal, December 11, 2001

45. Guy Gugliotta, Gary Matsumoto, "FBI's Theory On Anthrax Is Doubted, Attacks Not Likely Work Of 1 Person, Experts Say," Washington Post, October 28, 2002.

Rick Weiss and Dan Eggen, "Anthrax spores were doctored to be deadlier," The Washington Post, October 25, 2001.

46. John J. Fialka and Gary Fields, "Static Electricity Present in Anthrax Letters Made Spores Cling, May Have Saved Lives," The Wall Street Journal, dated December 3, 2001.

Guy Gugliotta, Gary Matsumoto, "FBI's Theory On Anthrax Is Doubted, Attacks Not Likely Work Of 1 Person, Experts Say," Washington Post, October 28, 2002.

47. Jonathan Rauch, "Does Al Qaeda Have Anthrax? Better Assume So," National Journal, June 1, 2002.

Scott Shane, "Anthrax powder from attacks could have been made simply: single maker a possibility, scientists now theorize", Baltimore Sun, November 3, 2002.

Guy Gugliotta, Gary Matsumoto, "FBI's Theory On Anthrax Is Doubted, Attacks Not Likely Work Of 1 Person, Experts Say," Washington Post, October 28, 2002.

"Powder Used in Anthrax Attacks 'Was Not Routine,' The Washington Post, April 09, 2002.

48. David Johnston and William J. Broad, "Anthrax Sent Through Mail Gained Potency by the Letter," New York Times, May 7, 2002. See also Richard Preston, The Demon In The Freezer, at 165, 171-172 (2002).

49. PBS: Online Newshour, "Camp David Accord" (September 17, 1978)

50. Egypt State Information Service, "October 6, 1973: The Battle of the Crossing."

51. FBI Homepage, 2001 Press Releases, (Anthrax Letters photos).

52. Statement of October 7, 2001 following September 11 attack.

See also "Statement Attributed to Al Qaeda Warns of More Attacks on New York, Washington", FoxNews, November 17, 2002

"Full text: bin Laden's 'letter to America'," Guardian Unlimited, November 24, 2002.

"Interview with Osama bin Ladin," Frontline. May 1998.

"Interview with Mujahid Usmah bin Ladin." Nida’ul Islam, Oct/Nov 1996.

"Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders, World Islamic Front Statement," February 23, 1998.

Statement of September, 1996 after return to Afghanistan.

Al Jazeera TV interview, about October 25, 2001.

Video tape with visiting sheikh, Kandahar area, mid-November, 2001 (

Videotape, December, 2001.

53. Senator Patrick Leahy's homepage, Committee Assignments.

54. Ibid; see also "Figures on US Aid," September 10, 2000.

PBS, Interview Ahmed Sattar, (1999).

55. "Congress asked to waive curbs on 'rogue states'" Dawn, September 25, 2001. See "Leahy Law".

See Ayman Zawahiri, "Knights Under the Prophet's Banner," (2001).

56. Susan Sachs, "An Investigation in Egypt Illustrates Al Qaeda's Web," New York Times, November 21, 2001.

See also

Roland Jacquard, In the Name of Osama Bin Laden, 108, 248 (2002)

57. PBS video excerpt.

58. "Fighting An Unholy War," Washington Times, August 18, 2002.

59. Summer 2001 Al Qaeda videotape.

60. "US Bypasses Law in Fight Against Terrorism," Washington Post, March 12, 2002.

61. Andrew Higgins, Alan Culli, "Saga of Dr. Zawahri Sheds Light On the Roots of al Qaeda Terror," Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2002.

62. Ayman Zawahiri, "Knights Under the Prophet's Banner," (2001).

63. Palestinian Hamas newspaper, al-Risala, Translation by Middle East Media Research Institute, report no. 247, (November 7, 2001);

64. Diplomatic Security Service, Department of State, "Letter Bomb Incidents".

65. Robert H. Reid, Associated Press, "Mail bombs sent to Arab newspaper", January 14, 1997.

66. Susan Sachs, "An Investigation in Egypt Illustrates Al Qaeda's Web," New York Times, November 21, 2001.

ENN Daily Intelligence Report, January 13, 1997.

67. "Letter bombs found in Washington area and federal prison in Kansas:FBI considers link to World Trade Center bombing," CNN January 2, 1997.

68. Paul De Armond, "Insider Diversion: profiling the anthrax attacks," (June 2002 rev.) online.

69. "Evidence suggests al Qaeda pursuit of biological, chemical weapons," CNN, November 14, 2001.

BBC, dated October 28, 2001 (remarks of Vice President Cheny on training and manuals relating to these kinds of substances).

70. "9/11 mastermind invited to Cairo Islamic seminar," Reuters, September 2, 2002.

71. Phil Brennan, "FBI Rejects Link Between Anthrax, 9-11 Terrorists," Newsmax, August 16, 2002.

72. Kathy Bushounse, and Kevin Krause, "FBI scouts back issues of tabloids in search for anthrax motive," Sun-Sentinel, August 30, 2002.

73. Guy Gugliotta, Gary Matsumoto, "FBI's Theory On Anthrax Is Doubted, Attacks Not Likely Work Of 1 Person, Experts Say," Washington Post, October 28, 2002.

74. Editorial, "Still Waiting For Answers, New York Post April 29, 2002.

Editorial, "The Deepening Anthrax Mystery," The New York Times, May 11, 2002

Wall Street Journal, dated September 5, 2002 ("The FBI persists in pursuing the yellow brick road theory of a lone madman laid out by Barbara Hatch Rosenberg of the Federation of American Scientists.")

Robert Bartley, "The Hatfill Case: Essential Background," Wall Street Journal, August 19, 2002.

Editorial, "Al Qaeda is still a bioterrorism threat," Wall Street Journal, dated March 26, 2002.

FBI Profile Disputed," Global Security Newswire, dated December 6, 2001.

Edward Jay Epstein, "FBI Overlooks Foreign Sources of Anthrax," Wall Street Journal,

75. November 9, 2001, Amerithrax Press Briefing.

See also

76. "Anthrax attacks linked to US extremists," Washington Post, October 28, 2001.

77. Attorney General John Ashcroft, Press Conference, October 18, 2001.

78. Ron Martz, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, "Experts doubt anthrax a domestic plot," October 19, 2001.

See also Brian Levin: Militias and bioterrorism, CNN, October 17, 2001.

79. "Did Bin Laden buy bioterror: trial testimony says he did," San Francisco Chronicle, October 21, 2001.

80. "Who's Behind the Anthrax Attacks," Newsmax, November 19, 2002.

81. "Al Qaeda-Anthrax Link?", CBS News, March 23, 2002.

82. "Memo on Florida Case Roils Probe," The Washington Post, March 29, 2002, Friday, Pg. A03;

See Cutaneous anthrax images.

Thomas W. McGovern, MD, Cutaneous Manifestations of Bioterrorism: Anthrax

83. Sarah El Deeb, "Hijacker farewell video found," Associated Press, April 15, 2002.

84. Map showing distribution of Brown Recluse Spider.

85. "Memo on Florida Case Roils Probe," The Washington Post, March 29, 2002, Friday, Pg. A03.

"Hijacker's lesion deepens mystery: U.S. official cautions against linking anthrax and Sept. 11 attacks," Baltimore Sun, March 24, 2002.

86. "Report Linking Anthrax and Hijackers Is Investigated," The New York Times, March 23, 2002.

87. "Coz: Mohamed Atta Spotted With Possible Anthrax Symptoms," Newsmax, October 12, 2001.

88. Michael Y. Park, "Bioterror Threat: Myth or Reality?" Foxnews, September 25, 2001.

89. "Bin Laden's Biological Threat," BBC, October 28, 2001.

90. "Face to face with Atta,"ABCNews.

91. Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs, October 2002.

Assessment: An Anthrax Attack on Washington D.C.A 1993 Report, citing U.S. Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION — Assessing the Risks, OTA-ISC-599 — Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 1993.

Al Qaeda: Taliban Sought Scientists help, NTI Newswire, November 26, 2001.

92. Report: Moussaoui tied to 9/11 plot, CNN, November 20, 2002

"Moussaoui's 9/11 Role Doubted?" CBSNews, July 20, 2002.

Toni Locy, "Moussaoui case doesn't hinge on role in 9/11," USAToday

Edward Jay Epstein, Question of the Week, online.

93. "FBI Overlooks Iraq's Connection to Anthrax Attacks," Newsmax

"Following the trail of powder," f2 network, October 20, 2001.

94. Edward Jay Epstein, "The Fog of Scoops."

"Mohammed Atta in Prague FAQ"

"Czechs retract Iraq terror link," UPI, October 20, 2002.

"Prague Discounts an Iraqi Meeting," New York Times, October 21, 2002.

95. Bob Drogin, Paul Richter and Doyle McManus, "White House says Sept. 11 skyjacker had met Iraqi agent," Los Angeles Times, August 2, 2002.

96. Pearle warns: 'Powerful' evidence of Iraq-Al Qaida WMD ties World, July 15, 2002.

97. "Blair's statement to MPs on Iraq," CNN, September 24, 2002.

Sebastian Rotella, "Allies Find No Links Between Iraq, Al Qaeda," Los Angeles Times, November 4, 2002

98. (trillion dollar 9/11 complaint against Iraq recounts Zawahiri's visits to Iraq)

99. Mark Schoofs and Gary Fields, "Anthrax Probe Was Complicated By Muddled Information, FBI Says," Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2002.

100. Transcript, "Ask The FBI: The anthrax investigation," USA Today, March 26, 2002.

See also Dan Eggen and Guy Gugliotta, "FBI Secretly Trying to Re-Create Anthrax From Mail Attacks," Washington Post, November 2, 2002.

101. "FBI's use of bloodhounds in anthrax probe disputed. Techniques: The three California handlers brought in by the bureau are viewed skeptically by many in their field," Baltimore Sun, October 29, 2002.

102. Hatfill's First Statement .

Hatfill's Second Statement.

Victor Glasberg's statement and Q and A session

103. Robert Bartley, "The Hatfill Case: Essential Background," Wall Street Journal, August 19, 2002.

"Circle of suspicion: Is the 'evidence' against an undeclared anthrax suspect just coincidences and a colorful past?" US News, August 26, 2002.

Rachel Smolkin, AJR, "Into The Spotlight", November 2002.

Editorial: "Person of Interest", Sacramento Bee, August 15, 2002.

Editorial, Blacklisting Steven Hatfill, Washington Post, September 5, 2001.

David Tell, "Remember Anthrax?" Weekly Standard April 29, 2002.

Fred Reed, "Steve Hatfill, Anthrax, and Bushwah," online.

104. "FBI Ignored Letter in Anthrax Probe," Newsmax August 15, 2002.

105. National Enquirer (only read at checkout line).

106. Phil Brennan, "FBI Rejects Link Between Anthrax, 9-11 Terrorists," Newsmax, August 16, 2002.

107. "FBI Ignored Letter in Anthrax Probe," Newsmax August 15, 2002.

108. Larry M. Bush, Barry H. Abrams, M.D., Anne Beall, B.S., M.T., and Caroline C. Johnson, M.D., "Index Case of Fatal Inhalational Anthrax Due to Bioterrorism in the United States," New England Journal of Medicine, 345:1607-1610, November 29, 2001.

109. MS Traeger et al., " First case of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax in the United States, Palm Beach, Florida, 2001," Emerg Infect Dis , October 2002.

110. Kathy Bushouse, and Kevin Krause, "FBI scouts back issues of tabloids in search for anthrax motive," Sun-Sentinel, August 30, 2002.

111. John Murawski, "Anthrax at AMI traveled via copiers," Palm Beach Post, September 15, 2002.

112.  David Tell, "Who is Syed Athar Abbas," Weekly Standard, July 17, 2002.

Rocco Parascandola, "Guilty Plea in Fraud Case But Feds Fear Pakistani's Purpose for buying Food Mixer," Newsday, July 15, 2002.

113. Air Force Journal, May 2002.

Guy Gugliotta, Gary Matsumoto, "FBI's Theory On Anthrax Is Doubted, Attacks Not Likely Work Of 1 Person, Experts Say," Washington Post, October 28, 2002.

Timothy P. Carney, "Milling Anthrax: Just a Click Away?" Human Events, October 29, 2001.

"Tracking Anthrax," PBS, October 17, 2001.

114. Hannah Bloch, "Some More Spores?: Suspicious packages raise prospect that Pakistan may be the latest target of bioterrorists", TIME, November 12, 2001.

"Pakistan, other US allies grapple with anthrax scares," Christian Science Monitor, November 5, 2001.

"Anthrax attacks in Pakistan as US strikes raise tensions," Middle East Times November 2, 2001.

"Anthrax Found in Pakistan News Office, " ABCNews, November 2, 2001.

"US Firm in Pakistan Gets Anthrax Letter," October 24, 2001.

"Pakistan reports anthrax exposures," CNN, November 2, 2001.

"Pakistan to test 3 people for anthrax exposure, " CNN, November 3, 2001.

Ghulam Hasnain, "Lethal Weapon: With three confirmed cases of anthrax exposure so far, offices in Karachi begin to gear up to face the new threat" Newsline (November 2001).

"No anthrax in Pakistan: minister," (reporting on 100 hoaxes and confirming that three cases at issue had not yet been retested; urging no need to panic).

115. Ayman Zawahiri, Knights Under the Prophet's Banner, (2001).

116. "'Why We Fight America': Al-Qa'ida Spokesman Explains September 11 and Declares Intentions to Kill 4 Million Americans with Weapons of Mass Destruction," Middle East Media Research Institute, Special Dispatch Series - No. 388 June 12, 2002 No.388.

117. "Federal advisers say U.S. unprepared for biological attack," By Laura Meckler, Associated Press, August 27, 2002.

by Brad Arnold (dobermantmacleod [at]
The CIA says that it is over 75% likely that Saddam, about to be toppled, will authorize biological attacks on the US homeland. When we invade Iraq to depose Saddam, we lose the deterrent card.

Iraq has smallpox. Iraq probably has the technology to make superpox, which our vaccine is ineffective against. Iraq might have been sold a Russian strain of smallpox which is vaccine resistant.

Delivering a highly contagious, vaccine resistant biologic weapon is as easy as infecting one person and have them ride airplanes and hang around the airport.

Motive, means, and opportunity.

We will cause what we are invading to prevent.
by this thing here
accounts for how the al-qaida "opperatives" brought a lethal, weaponized anthrax into america, how they stored it, how they transported it around in such a way that the anthrax was not destroyed, how they hid it from prying eyes.

maybe they got it here in america? then from WHO? isn't the very kind of anthrax in the envelopes U.S. BIO-WEAPONS GRADE? if, if, if it was them, how'd they get u.s. bio-weapons grade anthrax?

and what about that letter to AMI? why? again, just like with the senators, the motive put forward is so weak. just because it's a small world? just because the editor's wife was their real estate agent? how does that account for wanting to kill this women's husband?

cropdusters? how could these opperatives produce enough bio-weapons grade anthrax powder to spray over a city? i don't think they could. i'd bet they have to get a huge stock of it from somebody here in america. WHO?

again, i really don't think a bio-weapons lab that can produce U.S. military grade bio-weapon anthrax, can be set up in somebody's kitchen. i do not believe it's as easy as running a methamphetamine lab. it probably takes some serious equipment to produce even a small batch of powder. so if they can't produce it themselves, where'd they get it from?
by Ross E. Getman
The Accuracy in Media website had this contribution recently bearing on these issues:

2002 Report # 21 December 6, 2002  



Dr. Steven Hatfill, the so-called “person of interest” in the anthrax letters case, announced at an October 5 Accuracy in Media conference that lawsuits are planned against those who have accused him of involvement in the murders of five people. For the first time publicly, Hatfill directly confronted and dismissed many of the accusations that have tried to link him to the deadly letters. His comments were covered by CNN and Fox News.

Hatfill, who has the expertise to help prepare America for biowarfare waged by countries such as Iraq or international terrorists, understands how to save lives. But he has been run out of two jobs because of the government and media campaign against him. Hatfill said, “A year ago at this time I was involved in theoretical studies helping to determine means by which we could protect our ports and harbors from large-scale biological events. Several months ago I was involved in designing and implementing 46,000 first responders in how to handle biological incidents. Now I sit at home and watch CNN.”

“What upsets me the worst,” he said, his voice cracking with emotion, is that “my country is getting ready for war, and I’m left on the sidelines.”

False Reports Finger Hatfill

Hatfill, whose career and reputation have been ruined by media coverage of the case, told the conference that he once believed the media were fair and accurate. “Like many Americans I trusted that the news that would be presented to me on television and in the newspapers would be filtered and have some degree of accuracy,” he said. “I took this for granted.” He now knows better, he said, because the media have falsely depicted him as the anthrax killer of five people.

He attacked a Brian Ross story on ABC News that said he lived near a Greendale school in Zimbabwe in Africa. This was said to be incriminating because a Greendale school was listed on the return address on some of the letters. “There is no Greendale school in Zimbabwe and never has been,” Hatfill said.

Hatfill said he was partly responsible for a report on how government “first responders” to a biological or chemical attack could deal with the anthrax letter hoaxes that were occurring in the U.S. This was designed to help America prepare for the real thing. And yet it was “turned against me [and the media] said that it was a blueprint for the anthrax letters attack,” he noted. He called the coverage of this matter “complete rubbish.”

It was also reported that Hatfill had written an unpublished novel on anthrax letters being sent to Congress—another blueprint of what actually happened. He said that in fact, it dealt with mad cow disease and other emerging infections and the FBI was the hero of the book. He said. “Well, I’m busy rewriting the book.”

“A lot of what I can see in the FBI’s investigation of me has been driven by the press,” he said. “An article appears in some newspaper that I have a secret mountain cabin. What’s the next question I’m asked by the FBI? ‘Do you have a secret mountain cabin?’” That cabin turned out to be a home belonging to a Washington attorney where Hatfill and friends gathered for dinner and conversation.

While Hatfill’s life has been made miserable for many months, the FBI has failed to identify the real perpetrators of the anthrax attacks.

Asked for his suspicions about where the anthrax came from, Hatfill replied: “Throughout this entire year I’ve tried to sit on the fence. There are times when I think it could be domestic. There are times when I think it’s foreign. I don’t know. I don’t have enough information. I haven’t seen the powder. I don’t have enough scientific evidence to make any sort of determination except that when these deaths happened I think we all thought it was terrorism. It was a follow-on to 9/11, and I for one was shocked when the FBI declared that this was a domestic incident. I thought they were out of their minds. It’s hard to make any decision unless you have the evidence. I haven’t seen the powder. I can’t comment on it—its sophistication or anything else. I don’t have enough data to make a firm conviction. However, I believe if it had been domestic after the millions of dollars and thousands of man- hours that the FBI has put into this, I think those people would be in jail now. And I think the fact that there is no suspect points us towards perhaps a foreign power or a terrorist group involved—just simply by the process of elimination.”

Described by Attorney General John Ashcroft himself as a “person of interest” in the case, Hatfill has been forced to hire a lawyer and hold two news conferences to deny that he is responsible for the anthrax letters. His lawyer, Victor Glasberg, has filed a complaint with the Justice Department over how his client has been treated. Hatfill has been tailed by the FBI and his apartment has been searched three times. Yet he is not a suspect, no evidence has been found, and Ashcroft admits the FBI isn’t close to an arrest. In one of the most blatant media distortions in the case, Newsweek claimed that FBI bloodhounds went crazy around Hatfill, thereby linking him to the anthrax letters. But the scientist dismissed that, saying he had merely petted one of the dogs walking around him in a room. “Dogs like me,” he joked.

Hatfill revealed that the country’s top active expert in dried biological warfare agents—Bill Patrick—who had been polygraphed by the FBI and brought into their inner circle—was now being targeted as well, and that bloodhounds were “out sniffing him the other day.” “I didn’t know it could be like this in the United States,” he said. “We’ve gone nuts. We eat our own here.”

Ashcroft Leads The Campaign

Hatfill was the surprise guest on a panel discussion of the anthrax case that also included his spokesman, Pat Clawson; investigative free-lance journalist Nicholas Stix; and Kenneth J. Dillon of Spectrum Bioscience, Inc. The panel was moderated by Cliff Kincaid, the author of an AIM Report characterizing Hatfill as another Richard Jewell, the security guard falsely accused of the Olympic Park bombing.

Clawson, a former investigative reporter for CNN and other media, told the conference that coverage of Hatill has been “gossip masquerading as fact,” generated by leaks from the Department of Justice and the FBI, and he accused the media of malpractice. He said investigative journalism has been discarded in favor of “news candy” that seeks to entertain and not inform. Clawson said that he was interviewed by Geraldo Rivera of the Fox News Channel about the case and that Rivera was so unprepared to discuss the facts and looked so foolish that the story based on the interview never aired on the network. Instead, Rivera told viewers that Clawson had offered “nothing new” in the case and so the interview was killed.

Clawson blasted Attorney General Ashcroft for accusing Hatfill of being a “person of interest” in the case without having any evidence against him. He said Ashcroft lied on CNN’s Larry King Live when he said that the firing of Hatfill from a job in biodefense at Louisiana State University was a decision made by the university alone. In fact, the Justice Department had told the university not to use Hatfill in the program, which it funded.

Kincaid opened the discussion by noting evidence of al Qaeda interest in biowarfare from the FBI interrogation of American Taliban John Walker Lindh. Terrorist trainers told Lindh that the next wave of terrorism after 9/11 was to be chemical or biological attacks. Medical reports suggest that two of the 9/11 hijackers may have come into contact with anthrax. Two other possible hijackers, Ayub Ali-Khan and Mohammed Jaweed Azmath, now in U.S. custody, after 9/11 quickly left New Jersey, where the anthrax letters were postmarked. Sources told CNN and the Associated Press that the men had large amounts of cash, hair dye and box cutters in their possession. New Jersey was a base for the bombers of the World Trade Center in 1993. A microbiologist with dual Iraqi-American citizenship living in New Jersey was involved in that bombing. Another key player, an Iraqi named Abdul Rahman Yasin who had a New Jersey apartment, was questioned by the FBI, released, and then fled to Baghdad. He was interviewed by Lesley Stahl of CBS 60 Minutes earlier this year, advertised as “The Man Who Got Away.”

Al Qaeda was interested in anthrax as a weapon, had labs designed to make it, and reportedly had purchased it. CNN has al Qaeda videotapes showing their access to chemical and biological agents. CNN also reported an al Qaeda terrorism manual includes instructions on how to send a “poisonous letter.”

National Security adviser Condoleeza Rice said on September 26 that the Iraqi regime was sheltering members of the al Qaeda terrorist network in Baghdad and helping bin Laden’s operatives in developing chemical weapons. Doesn’t it make some sense, Kincaid asked, to consider that Iraq and al Qaeda were behind the anthrax letter attacks? Despite the statements of Rice and Rumsfeld on an al Qaeda link to Iraq, the administration has seemed reluctant to make a full-blown case. From the FBI’s point of view, this might expose other FBI failures. Kincaid speculated that it might lead to disclosures relating to the FBI’s failure to hold Iraq or al Qaeda responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the Oklahoma City bombing.

Anthrax Letters Analysis

Kenneth J. Dillon, a former Foreign Service officer and intelligence analyst, described the writing on the envelopes carrying the anthrax letters as authentic expressions of an al Qaeda operative. In what appeared to be the work of someone who spoke and wrote poor English, they said, “Take Penacilin (sic) Now. Death to America. Death to Israel. Allah is great.” Dillon said, “None of the various features of the letters points clearly to a domestic terrorist.” In particular, he said telling the target person to get “penacilin” can be explained as gloating, as making sure that the person would not just die of an unknown cause, or as an attempt to mislead.

On why Democratic Senators Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy were targeted, Dillon noted that this has been viewed by some as an indication that the letters were the act of a domestic right-winger. But in fact, he said, Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), the key component of al Qaeda under Dr. Ayman Zawahiri, head of al Qaeda’s biowarfare program, had targeted Senator Leahy because of his role as head of a panel of the Senate Appropriations Committee that had developed the so-called “Leahy Law” in 1998. Dillon explained, “According to the wording of the Leahy Law, the U.S. Government was authorized to ‘render’ suspected foreign nationals to the government of a foreign country, even when there was a possibility that they would be tortured, in ‘exceptional circumstances.’ When the Leahy Law was applied to send EIJ members captured in the Balkans back to Egypt, Zawahiri fiercely denounced the United States. So Leahy was a high-priority target.”

Dillon added, “Neither fingerprints nor DNA evidence was found on any of the letters, suggesting that the mailer had excellent forensic skills. It is conceivable that a domestic terrorist had mastered forensics, but it is not likely. Forensic skills are highly characteristic of a former Egyptian intelligence agent or special forces operative.”

Where did al Qaeda obtain its anthrax? Dillon said the high level of 1 trillion spores per gram in the letters to the senators must be the result of a team effort, not the work of a single disgruntled scientist. “This is a high-technology product that required iterative testing by a team of microbiologists, physical chemists, and chemical engineers over the course of several years and at a cost of millions of dollars,” he said. He suggested the source may have been the Porton Down Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment via the civilian Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research located in the same town. Dillon speculated that some scientist involved with one of these two institutes or with Porton Products and BioPort, Inc., companies owned by the Lebanese Fuad el-Hibri and working on behalf of the Saudi government, could have stolen a few grams each of various batches of anthrax and then sold them to al Qaeda. A subsequent report in the Washington Post quoted several scientists and biological warfare experts as saying that the evidence points to a foreign government such as Iraq as the likely source. Iraq may have given the anthrax to al Qaeda.

Dillon suggested investigating possible al Qaeda involvement in other incidents, such as the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 from JFK Airport on November 12, 2001—just a month after the 9/11 attacks. “The most plausible explanation of that crash is that, as the aircraft dipped in the downdraft of a preceding JAL jet, a Stinger missile missed the rear exhaust and sheered off the vertical tail stabilizer instead. The most likely suspect must be considered the same individual who sent the anthrax letters. He is probably a former Egyptian special forces operative trusted by Zawahiri. His range was from Trenton to JFK Airport, placing him most likely in northeastern New Jersey.” While the Flight 587 hearings are pointing to co-pilot error with the rudder as the most likely cause of the crash, Dillon says the Stinger missile hypothesis has not been adequately investigated.

Hatfill’s Main Accuser

Nicholas Stix, a free-lance investigative journalist who serves as Associate Editor of, discussed his research into the background and motivations of Dr. Barbara Hatch Rosenberg, one of Hatfill’s main accusers. Stix, one of the first journalists to expose the “high-tech lynching” of Hatfill, said Rosenberg is a professor of environmental science at a performing-arts college in Purchase, New York, who has nevertheless emerged as a major critic of America’s biodefense community. A prominent figure in media coverage of the Hatfill case who has been consulted by the FBI, she has peddled the theory that the U.S. biodefense program, not a foreign terrorist group or government, was the source of the anthrax used in the attacks.

Rosenberg believes that a member of this program sent the anthrax letters to warn the public of biological weapons and generate more funds for biodefense. After she met with the FBI and staffers to Senators Daschle and Leahy on June 18, an FBI search of Hatfill’s apartment was launched on June 25 with journalists on the scene and even circling in helicopters overhead. Stix noted that when this failed to turn up anything, the FBI used the dubious story of bloodhounds going “crazy” around Hatfill to justify another search on August 1. This story was given to Newsweek.

Stix called Rosenberg the “Dr. Strangelove of the American left” and noted that she is committed to passage of a protocol to a U.N. treaty to prohibit biological weapons. Under the protocol, a body of “experts” would inspect and monitor a country’s ability to make biological agents. But foreign spies on such a body could discover U.S. developments in biodefense and help America’s enemies counter or overcome them, making the U.S. more vulnerable to such attacks. This is one factor behind the Bush administration’s rejection of the protocol. But if it is proven that a current or former member of the U.S. biodefense community is behind the anthrax attacks, that would seem to make it imperative in Rosenberg’s mind that American work with such biological agents be strictly monitored under the protocol.
When I wrote these things- [these instructions to the embassies to frame Arabs for Israeli terrorism against U.S. targets in Egypt] - I still didn't know how crushing is the evidence that was already published
refuting our official version. The huge amounts of arms and explosives, the tactics of the attack, the blocking and mining of the roads ... the precise coordination of the attack. Who would be foolish enough to believe that such a complicated operation could "develop" from a casual and sudden attack on an Israeli army unit by an Egyptian unit?
- Moshe Sharett, Prime Minister of Israel 1954 & 1955.


Arab scientists recount hostility and harassment at military anthrax lab:

Assaad...was working on the Saturday before Easter 1991 when he discovered an eight-page poem in his mailbox. The poem, which became a court exhibit, has 235 lines, many of them lewd, mocking Assaad. The poem also refers to another creation of the scientists who wrote it — a rubber camel outfitted with sexually explicit appendages.
The poem reads: "In (Assaad's) honor we created this beast; it represents life lower than yeast." The camel, it notes, each week will be given "to who did the least."
The poem also doubles as an ode to each of the participants who adorned the camel, who number at least six and referred to themselves as "the camel club." Two — Dr. Philip Zack and Dr. Marian Rippy — voluntarily left Fort Detrick soon after Assaad brought the poem to the attention of supervisors.
Seattle Times, December 19, 2001

Anthrax Missing From Army Lab, Dr Philip Zack - Fort Detrick Suspect - CTNow, January 20, 2002
Fort Detrick's Anthrax Mystery: Who tried to frame Dr. Ayaad Assaad? - Salon, January 26, 2001
Anthrax Cover Up - Dr. Philip Zack & The Camel Club -, February 02, 2001
FBI still has little insight into last fall's lethal anthrax attacks - NewhouseNewsService, March 17, 2002
Riddle Of The Spores - Guardian, May 21, 2002
The Anthrax Man, Dr Stephen Hatfill - FD Suspect - Eat The State, July 03, 2002
Case of the Missing Anthrax - NYT, July 19, 2002
The Patriot Act - Government By Anthrax - Richard Ochs
Feds Sued Over Anthrax Documents - WorldNetDaily, June 07, 2002

Legal group wonders why White House took Cipro BEFORE ATTACKS - Judicial Watch, June 07, 2002

by Judicial Watch


Judicial Watch Wants to Know Why White House Went on Cipro Beginning September 11th

What Was Known and When?

(Washington, DC) Judicial Watch, the public interest group that investigates and prosecutes government corruption and abuse, said today that it has filed lawsuits against the Federal Bureau of Investigation (“FBI”), the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”), the Center for Disease Control (“CDC”), the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (“USAMRIID”) and the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) for those agencies’ failures to produce documents concerning the terrorist anthrax attacks of October 2001, under the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA”).

by this thing here
... i don't believe hatfill did it. i don't believe any scientist in a similar position to hatfill's would do it. again, the question comes down to motive. why on earth would somebody like hatifill want to do this? what's in it for him? why on earth would any scientist in a similar position, getting paid handsomely, leading a stable life, want to do it?

and the same goes for al-qaida. i do not believe the motive of attacking senator leahy because of an obscure law he passed justifies all the trouble and all planning, just to take out ONE SENATOR.

i think it was domestic. and not domestic "terrorists". i mean a government job. i mean a plan that had connections. that could get the powder. that knew where to send it. the type of anthrax used (u.s. military bio-weapons grade), the timing (to pressure a quick, no looking allowed, passage of the USA PATRIOT ACT), the senators selected, no finger prints, everything.

>Dillon added, “Neither fingerprints nor DNA evidence was found on any of the letters, suggesting that the mailer had excellent forensic skills. It is conceivable that a domestic terrorist had mastered forensics, but it is not likely. Forensic skills are highly characteristic of a former Egyptian intelligence agent or special forces operative.”<

this makes no sense. why would it be exclusively an egyptian intelligence agent? why not somebody in the c.i.a.? or the military? or the no such agency? again, the lack of finger prints shows that these persons knew what the hell they were doing. they had training.

so then let's travel down to florida and talk about the death of the AMI editor. who on earth would want that man, of all men, to be killed? the terrorists knew his wife? but why kill him? why not take out his wife. she was the one who had contact with the saudi's. she could have seen something. so why this woman's husband, and not the woman herself?

well, why are most journalists around the world killed? because they know something they are not supposed to know. or because they may be onto something they are not supposed to be onto. and because they reach huge numbers of people, through radios, t.v.'s, computers and newspapers. even this guy, the editor of a tabloid.

journalists are killed when they pose a threat. who did this guy pose a threat to? the terrorists who knew his wife? that makes no sense, because the terrorists were already vaporized by the time he breathed in that powder. their plan already went down. how can the living be a threat to the dead. how can the present be a threat to the past? so who did he pose a threat to?

i think he posed a threat to those who did not want anyone to know what exactly the terrorists were doing in florida, training at that specific flight school. they didn't want this man alive when his wife told him about how she had rented an apartment to the saudi's. somebody didn't want him digging around, asking questions. even though he was working for a bullshit tabloid, you can bet he knew when something was real, and would either get an exclusive scoop for the tabloid, or would perhaps pass it along to another reporter working for a more "respectable" newspaper or television station.

you could ask, well why didn't "they" take out his wife? because his wife wasn't a threat. she wasn't a journalist.

to sum it up, this man was killed because he may have posed a threat to power. and power likes to tie up all the lose ends. he posed no threat to the terrorists, because they were already long gone.

i really cannot think of any other reason why THAT MAN was killed. perhaps his death was simply a random test, to see if the powder was deadly. once he died, whoever was behind the attacks knew they had some deadly stuff.

the terrorists have less of a motive than the government in killing the people they killed, and targeting the people who were targeted. but, this is just a conspiracy theory, so take it or leave it. remember, the more questions, the less conspiracy bullshit...
by boolean
The sensible course for a detective would be to interrogate all those who started taking a preemptive course of Cipro on September 11.

Maybe Kissinger will add it to the list of things to do...

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