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$5.1B Proposed in Sales, Upgrades, Weapons for Pakistan's F-16s
by defenseindustrydaily
Wednesday Dec 26th, 2007 6:58 AM
On June 28/06, the US DSCA notified Congress via a series of releases of its intention to provide Pakistan with a $5.1 billion Foreign Military Sales package to upgrade the F-16s that serve as the PAF's top of the line fighters. Some of these items had been put on hold following the October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan & Kashmir, but the request for 36 new F-16 Block 50/52s is now going ahead following the required 30-day review period, along with new weapons, engine modifications, 60 F-16 upgrade kits that would cover Pakistan's older F-16 A/Bs plus other aircraft it might buy second-hand, and related equipment.
17-Dec-2007 14:43

These items are detailed below… along with controversies the proposed sales created, and some of the conditions attached to the sale by the US government.

Item 1: 36 New F-16 Block 50/52s – $3 billion
Item 2: Weapons for the New F-16s – $650 Million
Item 3: F-16A/B Mid-Life Update Modification Kits – $1.3 billion
Item 4: F-16A/B Engine Modifications & UP/STAR – $151 Million
Deal Updates and Progress [new]
Potential Controversies (July 5, 2006)
Item 1: 36 New F-16 Block 50/52s – $3 billion

The Government of Pakistan has requested a possible sale of 36 F-16C Block 50 and F-16D Block 52 two-seater aircraft – other reports indicate a buy of 18 jets, with an option for another 18. The total value, if all options are exercised, could be as high as $3 billion.

While Pakistan's existing F-16s use the Pratt & Whitney F100 engine, the new planes will be equipped with either the Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 or General Electric's F110-GE-129 Increased Performance Engines (IPEs). They will also be equipped with the APG-68(V)9 radars, which are the most modern F-16 radar except for the UAE's F-16E/F Block 60 "Desert Falcons" and their AN/APG-80 AESA.

The package for Pakistan's new F-16s also includes:

7 spare F100-PW-229 IPE or F110-GE-129 IPE engines
7 spare APG-68(V)9 radar sets
36 Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems (JHMCS)
36 AN/ARC-238 SINCGARS radios with HAVE QUICK I/II
36 Conformal Fuel Tanks (pairs) that fit along the aircraft's sides to give them extra range
36 Link-16 Multifunctional Information Distribution System-Low Volume Terminals; DID has covered the tactical uses of MIDS-LVT Link 16 systems
36 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Embedded GPS/Inertial Navigation Systems
36 APX-113 Advanced Identification Friend or Foe Systems
36 Advanced Integrated Defensive Electronic Warfare (ALQ-211 AIDEW) Suites without Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM); or AN/ALQ-184 Electronic Counter Measures pod without DRFM; or AN/ALQ-131 Electronic Counter Measures pod without DRFM; or AN/ALQ-187 Advanced Self-Protection Integrated Suites without DRFM; or AN/ALQ-178 Self-Protection Electronic Warfare Suites without DRFM
1 Unit Level Trainer
Associated support equipment, software development/integration, modification kits, capability to employ a wide variety of munitions, spares and repair parts, flight test instrumentation, publications and technical documentation, CONUS-personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related requirements to ensure full program supportability.
The principal contractors will be:

Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, TX
Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control, Dallas, TX
BAE Advanced Systems Greenlawn, NY
Boeing Corporation Seattle, WA
Boeing Integrated Defense Systems: St Louis, MO; Long Beach, CA; San Diego, CA
Raytheon Company: Lexington, MA; Goleta, CA
Raytheon Missile Systems in Tucson, AZ
Northrop-Grumman Electro-Optical Systems in Garland, TX
Northrop-Grumman Electronic Systems in Baltimore, MD
United Technology Company subsidiary Pratt & Whitney in East Hartford, CT; or
General Electric Aircraft Engines in Cincinnati, OH
There are no known offset agreements in connection with this proposed sale. Implementation of this proposed sale will require multiple trips to Pakistan involving U.S. Government and contractor representatives for technical review/support and program management of the aircraft. See DSCA release [PDF format].

Item 2: Weapons for the New F-16s – $650 Million

To equip those new F-16s, the Government of Pakistan has requested a possible sale of:

500 AIM-120C5 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM)
12 AMRAAM training missiles – these have seeker warheads but lack engines
200 AIM-9M-8/9 Sidewinder Short-Range Air-Air Missiles; they are the version before the fifth-generation AIM-9X.
240 LAU-129/A Launchers – these support AMRAAM or Sidewinder missiles.
500 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) Guidance Kits: GBU-31/38 Guided Bomb Unit (GBU) kits
1,600 Enhanced Paveway GBU-12 (500 lb.) and GBU-24s (2,000 lb.) with dual laser/GPS guidance
800 MK-82 500 pound General Purpose (GP) and MK-84 2,000 pound GP bombs
700 BLU-109 2,000 pound bunker-buster bombs with the FMU-143 Fuse
Associated support equipment, software development/integration, modification kits, capability to employ a wide variety of munitions, spares and repair parts, flight test instrumentation, publications and technical documentation, CONUS-personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related requirements to ensure full program supportability will also be provided.
The total value, if all options are exercised, could be as high as $650 million. The principal contractors will be:

BAE Advanced Systems in Greenlawn, NY
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company in Fort Worth, TX
Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control in Dallas, TX
Northrop-Grumman Electro-Optical Systems in Garland, TX
Northrop-Grumman Electronic Systems in Baltimore, MD
There are no known offset agreements in connection with this proposed sale. Implementation of this proposed sale will require multiple trips to Pakistan involving U.S. Government and contractor representatives for technical review/support, program management, and modification of the aircraft. See DSCA release [PDF format].

Item 3: F-16A/B Mid-Life Update Modification Kits – $1.3 billion

The Government of Pakistan has requested a possible sale of 60 F-16A/B Mid-Life Update (MLU) modification and Falcon Star Structural Service Life Enhancement kits consisting of:

APG-68(V)9 with Synthetic Aperture Radar or the APG-66(V)2 radar, which is a much smaller improvement on earlier F-16s. The APG-68 with SAR is far better at air to ground work, and can be used to monitor ground activity.
Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems (JHMCS)
AN/APX-113 Advanced Identification Friend or Foe Systems
AN/ALE-47 Advanced Countermeasures Dispenser Systems
Have Quick I/II Radios
Link-16 Multifunctional Information Distribution System-Low Volume Terminals (MIDS-LVT)
SNIPER (formerly known as AN/AAQ-33 PANTERA) targeting pod capability
Reconnaissance pod capability
Advanced Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation Units (used for training exercises)
MDE included in the MLU modification and structural upgrade kits
21 ALQ-131 Block II Electronic Countermeasures Pods without the Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM); or ALQ-184 Electronic Countermeasures Pods without DRFM;
60 ALQ-213 Electronic Warfare Management Systems;
1 Unit Level Trainer; and
10 APG-68(V)9 spare radar sets.
Radars, modems, receivers, installation, avionics, spare and repair parts, support equipment, CONUS-personnel training and training equipment, technical assistance, publications and technical documentation, system drawings, U.S. Government and contractor engineering, and other related logistics elements necessary for full program support.

JHMCSThe total value, if all options are exercised, could be as high as $1.3 billion.

According to the US DSCA, Pakistan intends to purchase the MLU Program equipment "to enhance survivability, communications connectivity, and extend the useful life of its F-16A/B fighter aircraft. The modifications and upgrades in this proposed sale will permit Pakistan's F-16A/B squadron to operate safely, and enhance Pakistan's conventional deterrent capability. Pakistan's air fleet can readily use these updates to enhance and extend the life of its aircraft."

The principal contractors will be:

BAE Advanced Systems in Greenlawn, NY
Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company in Fort Worth, TX
Lockheed Martin Missile and Fire Control in Dallas, TX
Northrop-Grumman Electro-Optical Systems in Garland, TX
Northrop-Grumman Electronic Systems in Baltimore, MD
There are no known offset agreements in connection with this proposed sale. Implementation of this proposed sale will require multiple trips to Pakistan involving U.S. Government and contractor representatives. See DSCA release [PDF format].

InsideDefense.com makes the interesting observation that Pakistan doesn't have 60 F-16s to upgrade. The clear implication is that the Pakistani government is interested in buying used F-16s from other countries and upgrading them.

Item 4: F-16A/B Engine Modifications & UP/STAR – $151 Million

F100 Engine TestThe third contract involves Engine Modifications and Falcon UP/STAR Structural Upgrades as well as associated equipment and services. The total value, if all options are exercised, could be as high as $151 million.

More specifically, the Government of Pakistan has requested engine improvements and structural modifications to its F-16 fleet, which includes a possible sale of:

14 F100-PW-220E engines
14 Falcon UP/STAR F-16 structural upgrade kits
De-modification and preparation of 26 aircraft
Support equipment, software development/integration, modification kits, spares and repair parts, flight test instrumentation, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, U.S. Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related requirements to support the program.
The principal contractors will be:

Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company in Fort Worth, TX
United Technology Company subsidiary Pratt & Whitney in East Hartford, CT.
There are no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale, but implementation of the engine modifications and UP/STAR repairs will require multiple trips to Pakistan involving U.S. Government and contractor representatives for technical review/support, program management, and modification of the aircraft. See DSCA release [PDF format].

Deal Updates and Progress

Dec 14/07: Raytheon Missile Systems of Tucson, AZ received a firm fixed price contract for $161.3 million. This action provides 300 miscellaneous unit air foil groups, 300 miscellaneous armament unit enhanced computer control groups, 1,298 weapon guidance unit computer control groups, 1,300 stabilizing and retarding unit air foil groups, 600 global positioning system adapter kits, 1 lot enhanced Paveway III and test equipment spares, 1 lot enhanced Paveway II, 700 certain adapter groups, 6 readiness test set, 6 bomb tool kits, 3 lots of enhanced Paveway tool sets, 3 each common munitions bit/reprogramming equipment adapter kits, 1 each mission planning software, 1 lot DATA. This effort supports foreign military sales to Pakistan. At this time $75.7 million has been obligated. The 784th Combat Sustainment Group (AFMC) at Hill Air Force Base, UT issued the contract (FA8213-08-C-0028).

Enhanced Paveways use a combination of laser and GPS/INS guidance. The laser designator offers better accuracy, and is compatible with targeting pods like Pakistan's forthcoming Sniper ATPs. GPS/INS benefits include the ability to function through fog, dust storms, clouds, smoke, or other obscurants, and can be employed in the absence of a laser designator as long as Global Positioning System coordinates are available for the target.

April 27/07: Pakistan orders 22 of Lockheed Martin's AN/AAQ-33 Sniper Advanced Targeting Pods under a $54.6 million firm-fixed-price contract. Since Raytheon's ATFLIR is only integrated with F/A-18s, and Northrop Grumman's LITENING AT is a joint development with Israel's RAFAEL, the choice is not surprising. Sniper pods have also been referred to as PANTERA pods in the past. See "Pakistan Joins List of Sniper ATP Customers" for more.

March 30/07: ITT Avionics in Clifton, NJ received a $78 million firm-fixed-price and time and materials contract for "Foreign Military Sales of the AN/ALQ-173 (V) advanced integrated defense electronics warfare to the country of Pakistan." Associated spares, support equipment, training, engineering services, flight test support and data are also being acquired. Solicitations began February 2007, negotiations were complete March 2007, and work will be complete January 2010. The Headquarters Warner Robins Air Logistics Center at Robins Air Force Base, GA issued the contract (FA8523-07-C-).

Oddly enough, the AN/ALQ-173 was not among the many ECM alternatives listed in the official US DSCA announcement. See below…

Dec 5/06: Lockheed Martin Corp. in Fort Worth, TX received a $144 million firm-fixed-price and time and materials contract for 12 operational single place F-16C Block 52 aircraft and 6 operational two place F-16D Block 52+ aircraft. This will begin readying materials to manufacture the aircraft. Aircraft purchases will be accomplished under the firm-fixed price portion of the contract, and $78.4 million has been obligated at this time. Work will be complete by November 2010. The Headquarters Aeronautical Systems Center at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH issued the contract (FA8615-07-C-6031). See DID coverage.

Nov 17/06: Raytheon Missile Systems in Tucson, AZ received a $269.6 million firm-fixed-price contract modification, exercising an option to purchase 500 AIM-120C5 AMRAAM missiles and rehost on behalf of Pakistan (100%). Work will be complete April 2011. The Headquarters Medium Range Missile System Group at Eglin Air Force Base, FL issued the contract (FA8675-05-C-0070/P00028).

Nov 15/06: Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems in Linthicum Heights, MD received half of a $99.5 million firm-fixed-price contract for "government furnished property for the Government of Pakistan" under the F-16 Block 50/52 new aircraft and modernization program. "The procurement of 54 AN/APG-68 (V)9 Radar Systems will be accomplished under the firm-fixed-price portion of the contract." A January 10, 2007 Northrop Grumman release clarifies: this order is for 52 systems (18 new + 34 upgrade kits), with a 44 radar option to follow (18 new + 26 upgrade kits). See complete DID coverage for details regarding the order and the radar.

Oct 2/06: India Defence reports that Pakistan and USA have signed a letter of acceptance for these deals, following a September 30, 2006 ceremony in Rawalpindi were Pakistan's military is headquartered. It said that the United States will supply 18 new F-16 aircraft, as well as an unspecified number of upgraded second-hand F-16s. Previous reports have said the number of second hand aircraft Pakistan was considering buying was 36, which would make for 18 of each.

India Defence adds that "Both sides had expected to wrap up the deal a month earlier, but negotiations dragged on because of strings Washington wanted attached." The USA has clear concerns regarding technology transfer from the F-16s or associated weapons it sells to 3rd countries like China, which has close military ties with Pakistan.While the US was reluctant to discuss details, Assistant Secretary of State for political-military affairs John Hillen was more open with Congress on July 20, 2006.

In his testimony to the House of Representatives' International Relations Committee, Hillen reportedely said that: the United States was withholding unspecified technologies "that would usually go with an F-16," including ones that would let it "be used in offensive ways to penetrate air space of another country that was highly defended". It added that Pakistan's F-16 fleet and its munitions would be segregated from aircraft supplied by other countries, so that unauthorized engineers could not get access to the U.S.-made planes, and that U.S. personnel would carry out inventories of the F-16s and their associated systems every 6 months. There had even been a proposal that F-16 flights outside Pakistani air space, including for exercises with other countries, would have to be approved by the U.S. government in advance. It is not clear whether this requirement ever got beyond the proposal stage.

July 20/06: Well, here's the first copncerned speech from an opposed Congressman: Eliot Engel [D-NY], citing Pakistan's support for terrorism in India. Mr Engel is a senior member of the House International Relations Committee, and was one of the first Members of Congress to come out in favour of the proposed India-US nuclear energy deal. He'll be making his views public at the July 20, 2006 House International Relations Committee hearing on the Pakistan sales – and that meeting will tell us if opposition to the deal has real traction.

Potential Controversies (July 5, 2006)

The DSCA has said that "Release of this system would not significantly reduce India's quantitative or qualitative military advantage." India disagrees, and military experts in Delhi will likely note that the same equipment (GPS, targeting pods, bunker-busters) that could potentially find uses against al-Qaeda terrorists in Pakistan's "lawless frontier" could also be used in precision strikes on India's military facilities in the event of war.

The DSCA counters that release of the F-16C/D Block 50/52 aircraft to Pakistan "will neither affect the regional balance of power nor introduce a new technology as this level of capability or higher already exists in other countries in the region." India does operate more advanced SU-30MKI aircraft with R-77 "AMRAAMski" missiles, advanced avionics, et. al.; these are superior in range, armament, and maneuverability to Pakistan's F-16s, and will remain so. Meanwhile, India's $7-10 billion MRCA competition is certain to introduce 125-200 aircraft that are certain to be more advanced than the F-16 Block 50/52.

The US DSCA adds in its submission to Congress that "The modification of the engines and Falcon UP/STAR structural updates will provide capable F-16's that can be used for close air support in ongoing operations contributing to the GWOT." The DSCA also cites the June 2004 designation of Pakistan as a Major Non-North Atlantic Treaty Organization Ally in its submission. The British commander of NATO's ISAF force in Southern Afghanistan sees Pakistan's role in a rather different light, however; he recently noted that al-Qaeda in Afghanistan is still run out of Pakistan (specifically Quetta), with Pakistani knowledge and even support from Islamist elements in its security apparatus. Ah, the dynamics of counter-insurgency in tribal societies. Pakistan angrily denies this, of course.

India's objections to this sale have been muted thus far, and phrased carefully to emphasize their effect on India-Pakistan ties rather than India-US ties. Meanwhile, President Bush's personal diplomacy approach has fostered a strong relationship with Gen. Musharraf that is inclined to view such requests favourably as part of the USA's 3-corner balancing act in the region. Barring unusual circumstances, therefore, it's reasonable to expect this sale to go through with little more than a concerned speech or two in Congress.

http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/51b-proposed-in-sales-upgrades-weapons-for-pakistans-f16s-02396/