SF Bay Area Indymedia indymedia
About Contact Subscribe Calendar Publish Print Donate

San Diego | Immigrant Rights

Riots in England 2011/Uprising of the unheard
by Astrid Essed
Wednesday Sep 14th, 2011 6:58 PM
In contrary with the mainstream media and the British politicians, the 2011 riots in England are no ''mindless violence'', but a clear protest against the years of social injustice and racist police violence
RIOTS IN ENGLAND/UPRISING OF THE UNHEARD



RIOTS ARE THE VOICE OF THE UNHEARD
Martin Luther King

http://quotationsbook.com/quote/34458/


''Whilst many seek to pin the blame on the inevitable result of decades of oppression in under-privileged communities, the causes of the riots are swept under the rugs looted from Carpet Right. Inequality is at the heart of this. As long as the police see themselves as above the law, young people will take it into their own hands.''

JODY MCINTYRE/FROM BRIXTON TO TOTTENHAM

http://jodymcintyre.wordpress.com/2011/08/08/from-brixton-to-tottenham-the-inequality-at-the-heart-of-the-riots/

WE ARE NO LONGER WILLING TO PUT UP WITH POLICE BRUTALITY OR RACISM

ALONDRA NELSON ON TWITTER


Dear Editor and readers,

SUMMARY:


In contrary with the British politicians and mainstream media, the riots in England are no ''mindless violence'' and ''criminal acts'', but the direct consequence of government cuts, which are especially damaging to poor neighbourhoods. decennialong social deprivation and often unpunished police violence.
The methods [burning and looting] are wrong, the deadly victims unacceptable, but the fury about the yearlong police violence and the social injustice is legitimate
This is the resistance of the unheard and humiliated, as Martin Luther King has stated [1]

TIMELINE

The riots were short, but vehement and took place from 6 untill 10th of august 2011 [2]
What started in the multicultural underprivileged neighbourhood Tottenham [London North] as a peaceful protest against the police shooting of Mark Duggan [3], became a real uprising and spread in and outside London, especially in ciies in the Midlands and North West of England [4]

Those riots, which started in Tottenham, are often compared with the Tottenham riots, which took place in 1985
Direct cause was also a death by police violence
Also in this case the viictim was black

Tottenham/October 1985
The Broadwater Farm riots

After the arrest of a young black man, Floyd Jarrett, his house was been searched by the police, which led to a confrontation between the police and Jarrets family members.
In the commotion, his 49-year-old mother, Cynthia Jarrett, fell over and died almost instantly
Later the police was criticized about the way the home searching took place [5]
After the death of Cynthia Jarrett the socalled Broadwater Farm riots spread, which costed the life of a policeman, Keith Blakelock [6]

A week before the death of Cynthia Jarrett another black woman, Dorothy Cherry Groce, was shot in her home by the police and was paralysed below the waist for the rest of her life
The direct cause was the police searching of her son Michael Groce, who was suspected of fitearms offence
Her shooting was followed by the Brixton riots in 1985 [7]

Tottenham 2011

Direct cause was the police shooting of Mark Duggan, a father of four at 4th august in an attempt to arrest him.
The police sho shot him were part of the Specialist Firearms Command [CO19], accompanying officers from ''Operation Trident'', a London Metropolitan police Unit which deals with ''guncrime in the black community''
Immediately after the fatal shooting the police spread the runour [which was promoted by the media], that Duggan had fired at the police.
However, ballistic investigation showed, that Duggan didn't fire at the police at all [8]

What really infuriated the people was the lack of respect the police showed to a peaceful protest of family and friends of Mark Duggan to Tottenham Police Station
No information whatsoever had been given about the cause of his death
The parents of Mark Duggan found out how he died from the press
Two days later [9]


REACTION OF THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT AND POLITICIANS ON THE RIOTS
MORAL DECLINE?
WHOSE?

Members of Parliament:

Striking is, that all British political parties, from conservative to ''progressive'' left were unanimous in condemning the riots as ''criminal'' or ''mindless'' [10]
Often without any reference to underlying causes or the fact, that this was no isolated outburst of fury, but based on years of protests from mainly black underprivileged neighbourhoods
Those who did refer to social backgrounds [like financial cuts], nevertheless called for extreme measures to end the riots [11]
A courageous reaction came fron Labour MP John Mc Donnel, who stated:
''“MPs and their expenses, bankers and their bonuses, tax evading corporations” had created a “society of looters”. [12]

State/Government:

It was no suprise, that State reaction was extremely repressive
Prime minister Cameron laid all ugly cards on the table

He called the rioters ''criminals'' and the riots ''moral decline''
He spoke about ''culture of fear in the streets'', neglecting the fact, that the years of violent police action had caused a culture of fear among the inhabitants of underprivileged black neighbourhoods

His measures were tough enough
16000 policemen were sent to London
He threatened to use the watercannon, which was never used in England [although it was a common measure of repression in Northern Ireland]
The use of the rubber bullet also belonged to the possibilities
His most extreme statement was, that the police was free to use ''all means necessary'' [13]

Yet apart from his repressive means he uses the riots as an excuse to promote extreme police measures [14]


REACTION OF THE BRITISH PRESS

The British press followed the politicians like slaves
Agan, from ''progressive'' to conservative press, an unanimous condemnation of the riots, often without any reference to the underlying causes [15]
Besides silly comments from the conservative press [criminality, moral decline], the socalled ''progressive'' paper The Guardian used law and order language in her ''statement'' to the public to back the police [16]

The Independent was less worse, but not good enough
Although they uttered police and society criticism, any relation between police violence/social problems and the riots was denied.
They called the riots ''mindless violence'', a stupid comment, since there was no reference to underlying causes [17]

One could compare the reaction of the press with those media, which commented the 11 september attacks without any reference to the deeper lying causes [18]

True exceptions:
The Socialist Worker, the Morning Star and anarchist comments

Between all those negative press reaction, there were two good exceptions, the Socialist Worker and the Morning Star, which DID comment on the years of social deprivation, government cuts, racism and police violence, which had created the riots
They placed it in historical perspective by pointing out, that the 2011 riots didn't come out of the sky, but had a background, from the eighties of the former century [19]
But those are no mainstream media, but stemmed from the resistance, which is not bound by parliamentary ties
From anarchist view there also was fundamental criticism [20]


CAUSES OF THE RIOTS
''MINDLESS VIOLENCE'' OR LEGITIMATE RESISTANCE?


''''WE ARE NO LONGER WILLING TO PUT UP WITH POLICE BRUTALITY OR RACISM''
Alondra Nelson [Twitter]

Politicians and press were in a competition to scream about the ''criminal character'' of the riots, ''mobs out of control'', ''gangsters'', mindless violence, etc, etc
Causes didn't play any part, the death of Mark Duggan had nothing to do with it
And more of that nonsense

But reality shows another cup of soup:

Of course it is not by chance, that riots have their origin in poor, underprivileged areas as Tottenham, which are plagued by great poverty, unemployment and lack of perspective, especially for young people.
Recently in Tottenham eight of the twelve youth facilities were closed.

Add to that racism and systematic police violence with often a racist nature and you have your ingredients for riots [21]

RIOTS/HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

Since the early eigthies [of the former century] anti racist and socio economical riots took place, often clashes between black youth and the police, but also white youth take part, since they are victims of the same social deprivation
In most cases, direct cause is police violence or an inedequate police investigation after racist violence against black people
Underlying causes are the socio economical problems.
It is not by chance, that looting is directed against the big stores like Sony and banks [22]


FRENCH RIOTS/LOS ANGELES RIOTS
SAME CAUSE, SAME STRUGGLE

A tight comparision is made with the French riots in 2005 and 2007 and even the Los Angeles riots in 1992
As well the French as LA riots stemmed from the same origin
Poverty, a lack of perspective, high youth unemployment
Direct causes were also police violence
In the french case, Amnesty International sharply criticized police violence and impunity [23]

CULTURE OF FEAR IN THE STREETS
POLICE VIOLENCE

Police violence is one of the greatest sources for riots and is often directed against blacks, although not only
Causes lie often in racism AND in the fact, that most ''coloured'' people live in underprevileged neigbourhoods, where tensions and frustrations are bog because of structural poverty
Investigation shows, that black people have 25 times the chance to be controlled by the police
The cases of violent police confrontation are alarming
Mark Duggan, Cynthia Jarrett, Cynthia Jarrett and Dorothy Groce are the top of the iceberg [24]
The last ten years, at least 650 people died in police custody [25]

NOT RIOTS, BUT THIS POLICE VIOLENCE CREATE A ''CULTURE OF FEAR''

DEVASTATING FOR THE POLICE
UNMASKING POLICE VIOLENCE
REPORTS SCARMAN/GIFFORD/MACPHERSON

Two reports about police violence were revealing, the Scarman report [1981] following the Brixton riots in 1981 and the Gifford report [1986] following Broadwater Farm riots in 1985
Although the riots were condemned, both reports revealed serious police racism and prejudice
The Gifford report even did a proposal for reforms of the police
So did the MacPherson report [1999], which was created following the death of Stephen Lawrence [26]


IMPUNITY OF POLICE VIOLENCE

What makes people furious is the impunity of the police violence
Investigations take place and reports are written.

HOWEVER, THE LAST 40 YEARS NO POLICE OFFICER HAS FOUND GUILTY OF ANY DEATH IN CUSTODY, DESPITE THE GREAT NUMBER
THE SAME IS THE CASE REGARDING POLICE SHOOTING INCIDENTS
In case of the death of Cyntrhia Jarrett, no police officer has been charged, in the Cherry Groce case the police officer involved has been acquitted.
The same old story with regard to other shooting incidents [27]


DEATH OF A POLICEMAN/NO MOUNTAIN TO HIGH......

However, when a police officer is killed, all hell breaks loose.
During the Broadwater Farm riots in 1985, police officer Blakelock had been killed [28]
Police maintained a substantial presence on the estate for several months, arresting and interrogating 400 people.
Eventually 6 men were charged, three minors and three adults.
The juveniles all had their cases dismissed after the judge ruled the conditions in which they had been held were so inappropriate that their interrogation was inadmissible - conditions included being questioned naked except for a blanket, which was cruel and inhumane, and being questioned without a guardian [29]
Eventually three adults [Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip en Mark Braithwaite ] were convicted to lifelong imprisonment despite no witnesses and limited forensic evidence.
The Tottenham Three are Innocent Campaign and the Broadwater Farm Defence Campaign pressed for a retrial. On 25 November 1991, all three defendants were cleared by the Court of Appeal when an ESDA test [30] demonstrated police notes of interrogations (the only evidence) had been tampered with. [31]


DOUBLE STANDARDS

Double standards, regarding human lives
For any loss of human life deserves the same justice, regardless the victim
Any human being has the right to life and dignity

EPILOGUE:

The riots are over after State hugh repression
16000 policemen were sent to London, the use of the watercannon and baton rounds has been considered, there were mass arrests of 1500 people, mass home searches and harsh sentences by the Courts [32]

However, nothing has been solved, when the State only reacts with repression and lack of respect for the fundamental rights of any human being, regardless descent

The right to life
The right to be free from poverty
The right to live in dignity

When the State doesn't respect those rights and only reacts with repression, when the police is not reformed, the next riots are on their way, when time is ripe

Moral decline there is for sure
But then from the side of the State and police


Kind greetings

Astrid Essed
Amsterdam
The Netherlands






[1]


RIOTS ARE THE VOICES OF THE UNHEARD
MARTIN LUTHER KING

http://quotationsbook.com/quote/34458/


[2]


WIKIPEDIA
2011 ENGLAND RIOTS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots


BBC NEWS
TIMELINE AND MAP OF VIOLENCE

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14436499


BBC NEWS
ENGLAND RIOTS

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14452097

WIKIPEDIA
TIMELINE OF 2011 ENGLISH RIOTS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_2011_England_riots




[3]


POLICE SHOOTING OF MARK DUGGAN

WIKIPEDIA
2011 ENGLAND RIOTS
POLICE SHOOTING OF MARK DUGGAN

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots#Police_shooting_of_Mark_Duggan

Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots


WIKIPEDIA
DEATH OF MARK DUGGAN

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Mark_Duggan


LONDON EVENING STANDARD
NO EVIDENCE THAT MARK DUGGAN SHOT AT POLICE, SAYS IPPC
10TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23976974-no-evidence-that-mark-duggan-shot-at-police-says-ipcc.do



[4]

THE GUARDIAN
TOTTENHAM RIOTS: A PEACEFUL PROTEST, THEN SUDDENLY ALL HELL BROKE LOOSE
7TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/07/tottenham-riots-peaceful-protest


THE SOCIALIST WORKER
HOW THE RIOTS SPREAD ACROSS BRITAIN
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25682


[5]


THE GUARDIAN
ANGER SMOULDERS IN TOTTENHAM: THE BROADWATER FARM RIOTS OF 1985

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/from-the-archive-blog/2011/aug/08/anger-tottenham-broadwater-riots-1985?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487


See also

25 YEARS: A RIOTOUS ANNIVERSARY

http://www.hlstudios.eu.com/hlblog/lang/en/25-years-a-riotous-anniversary/


THE SOCIALIST WORKER
TOTTENHAM-A PROUD HISTORY OF RESISTANCE
9TH\AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25658

DEATH OF CYNTHIA JARRETT

WIKIPEDIA
BROADWATER FARM RIOT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot


CONDEMNATION OF POLICE CONDUCT

''The local council leader, Bernie Grant, later condemned the search and urged the local police chiefs to resign immediately as their behaviour had been "out of control".[

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot#Death_of_Cynthia_Jarrett

Source:

WIKIPEDIA
BROADWATER FARM RIOT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot

SEE ALSO:


''In a statement issued after he had heard rioting had begun Haringey's black mayor, Mr Bernie Grant, said: 'For the second time in a week, a black woman had been killed by officers of the state. Police behaviour is totally unacceptable. The force is out of control. ''

THE GUARDIAN
POLICEMAN KILLED IN RIOT
7TH OCTOBER 1985
STREET VIOLENCE IN TOTTENHAM, NORTH LONDON

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1985/oct/07/ukcrime.garethparry




[6]


THE GUARDIAN
POLICEMAN KILLED IN RIOT
7TH OCTOBER 1985
STREET VIOLENCE IN TOTTENHAM, NORTH LONDON

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1985/oct/07/ukcrime.garethparry


[7]


''A black woman, Cherry Groce, had been shot by police a week earlier in Brixton. ''


WIKIPEDIA
BROADWATER FARM RIOT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot


THE MIRROR
CHERRY GROCE, WHOSE SHOOTING BY POLICE SPARKED THE BRIXTON RIOTS, DIES AGED 63
30TH APRIL 2011

http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2011/04/30/cherry-groce-whose-shooting-by-police-sparked-the-brixton-riots-dies-aged-63-115875-23095667/


BBC
1985/ RIOTS IN BRIXTON AFTER POLICE SHOOTING

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/28/newsid_2540000/2540397.stm



BBC
1987: OFFICER CLEARED IN GROCE SHOOTING CASE


http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/15/newsid_2530000/2530537.stm


DEATH OF CYNTHIA JARRETT

'' The inquest found that Jarrett had died accidentally. No police officers were charged or disciplined for her death.''

WIKIPEDIA
BROADWATER FARM RIOT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot




''
Insp Douglas Lovelock, who shot Mrs Groce, was cleared of criminal charges in 1987.''

Source:

BBC
1985/ RIOTS IN BRIXTON AFTER POLICE SHOOTING

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/28/newsid_2540000/2540397.stm


[8]

DEATH OF MARK DUGGAN


THE GUARDIAN
MARK DUGGAN: PROFILE OF TOTTENHAM POLICE SHOOTING VICTIM
8TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/08/mark-duggan-profile-tottenham-shooting

THE GUARDIAN
LONDON RIOTS: MARK DUGGAN DIED OF GUNSHOT WOUND TO CHEST, INQUEST TOLD
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/09/london-riots-mark-duggan-inquest


THE SOCIALIST WORKER
HOW POLICE KILLED MARK DUGGAN
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25690


IPPC [INDEPENDENT POLICE COMPLAINT COMMISSION]
UPDATE ON MARK DUGGAN INVESTIGATION INCLUDING DETAILS OF BALLISTIC TESTS
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.ipcc.gov.uk/news/Pages/pr_090811_dugganupdate.aspx


THE GUARDIAN
MARK DUGGAN DIDN'T SHOOT AT POLICE, SAYS IPCC
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/09/mark-duggan-police-ipcc?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487




THE GUARDIAN
LONDON RIOTS: THE FAMILY OF MARK DUGGAN SAYS IT HAS NO TRUST IN THE IPCC
14TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/14/mark-duggan-family-ipcc-met-police-tottenham-riots


[9]

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
HOW POLICE KILLED MARK DUGGAN
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25690


''But Lammy [British MP/Addition Astrid Essed] did suggest that the police could have handled the situation in Tottenham better. "There are questions about the nature of the escalation of this violence last night, and the nature of the policing that led up to it," he said. "I am concerned that what was a peaceful protest turned into this."

THE GUARDIAN
POLITICIANS CONDEMN TOTTENHAM RIOTS
7TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/aug/07/politicians-condemn-tottenham-riots




[10]

THE GUARDIAN
POLITICIANS CONDEMN TOTTENHAM RIOTS
7TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/aug/07/politicians-condemn-tottenham-riots


THE SOCIALIST WORKER
RIOTS: THE VOICE OF THE UNHEARD
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25656


WIKIPEDIA
POLITICAL

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots#Political

Source:

WIKIPEDIA
2011 ENGLAND RIOTS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
POLITICIANS ARE THE REAL LOOTERS
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25684


[11]


''Labour MP Ken Livingstone did talk about the damage that government cuts have done to young people. But then he called for more police—and even the use of water cannon on the streets. They have never been used in mainland Britain.''

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
POLITICIANS ARE THE REAL LOOTERS
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25684

''
I am concerned that there is growing social dislocation in London and a threat that the police will be forced into escalating conflict with some London communities. We do not want to go back to the 1980s.
The economic stagnation and cuts being imposed by the Tory government inevitably create social division.''

WEBLOG LIVINGSTONE
KEN LIVINGSTONE STATEMENT ON TOTTENHAM RIOTS

http://www.labourlist.org/ken-livingstone-statement-on-tottenham-riots


[12]

''John McDonnell MP pointed to the real problems in society. He said, “MPs and their expenses, bankers and their bonuses, tax evading corporations” had created a “society of looters”.

Source:

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
POLITICIANS ARE THE REAL LOOTERS
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25684


THE GUARDIAN
PROFILE JOHN MC DONNEL

http://www.guardian.co.uk/profile/johnmcdonnell


WEBSITE JOHN MC DONNEL

http://www.john-mcdonnell.net/

ACTIVITIES IN PARLIAMENT

http://www.john-mcdonnell.net/parliament/john-in-parliament/






[13]


THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD
NO CULTURE OF FEAR IN UK STREETS: CAMERON
11TH AUGUST 2011

http://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-world/no-culture-of-fear-on-uk-streets-cameron-20110811-1in72.html


THE SCOTSMAN
LONDON RIOTS: 16000 POLICE ON STREETS TONIGHT
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://news.scotsman.com/news/London-riots-16000-police-on.6815647.jp


THE GUARDIAN
LONDON RIOTS: POLICE WILL USE BATON ROUNDS IF NECESSARY, WARNS MET
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/09/london-riots-police-baton-rounds


THE GUARDIAN
DAVID CAMERON: POLICE CAN USE WATERCANNON TO CONTROL RIOTS
10TH AUGUST 2011


http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/10/david-cameron-water-cannon-police-riots



THE GUARDIAN
NOW IT IS NOT THE TIME TO USE WATERCANNON AND BATON ROUNDS
10TH AUGUSTUS 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/aug/10/water-cannons-baton-rounds-hugh-orde?intcmp=239

Cameron said the police have been authorized to use whatever means necessary to combat "despicable violence," with plans in place for water cannon to be available within 24 hours if needed, he said.

Source


LOS ANGELES TIMES
DAVID CAMERON SAYS ''FIGHTBACK'' AGAINST LOOTING IS UNDER WAY
10TH AUGUST 2011


http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fgw-london-riot-fightback-20110810%2c0%2c1577489%2cfull.story




THE SOCIALIST WORKER
MORE POLICE MEANS MORE TROUBLE
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25685


[14]

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
CAMERON USES RIOTS AS AN EXCUSE TO CRACK DOWN
11TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25695


[15]


REACTION OF THE PRESS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots#Press


Source:


WIKIPEDIA
2011 ENGLAND RIOTS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots


[16]

Britain's 2011 riots have become a defining contest between disorder and order. In that contest, important caveats notwithstanding, there is only one right side to be on. The attacks, the destruction, the criminality and the reign of fear must be stopped. The rule of law in the cities of Britain must not only be defended against delinquent destruction. It must also be enforced. There can be arguments about wider issues later. Today, in this moment of threat, the necessary position is to stand behind the police.''

THE GUARDIAN
URBAN RIOTS: THE BATTLE FOR THE STREETS
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/aug/09/urban-riots-battle-streets-editorial



[17]

Attempts to trace this outbreak of lawlessness to deprivation and the social marginalisation of Britain's inner-city youth need to be handled with care. A lack of economic opportunity and aspiration in our inner cities is unquestionably a problem that local and political leaders must address. But it is spurious to draw a connection between that disaffection and specific outbreaks of violence of the sort we have seen in recent days.''

THE INDEPENDENT
THE LESSONS TO BE DRAWN FROM MINDLESS VIOLENCE
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/leading-articles/leading-article-the-lessons-to-be-drawn-from-mindless-violence-2333987.html



[18]

''And hereby the very causes of the 11 september attacks are revealed
The Western dominance in the Middle East [including support for Israel] and the committed warcrimes in Afghanistan and Iraq, which stay unpunished given the balance of power, as the unpunished Israeli crimes in occupied Palestine.

Terrorism is not the Evil, but the reaction on the Evil''


INDYMEDIA CHICAGO
OSAMA BIN LADEN KILLED BY US TROOPS/NO JUSTICE WITHOUT A TRIAL
10TH MAY 2011

http://chicago.indymedia.org/newswire/display/94038/index.php





[19]




''This is what happens in a society of deep and growing inequality, where there are great pools of unemployment and poverty, where there is systematic police harassment and racism, and where many young people feel they have no future.''

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
WHY PEOPLE ARE RIOTING
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25645


''
This is not a revolution.
This is a primal scream against years of oppression. ''


MORNING STAR
TINDERBOX BRITAIN
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/news/content/view/full/108079


[20]


WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT
CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIOTS: AN ANARCHIST PERSPECTIVE
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.wsm.ie/c/london-riots-causes-consequences-anarchist


[21]

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
WHY PEOPLE ARE RIOTING
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25645

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
POVERTY AND RACISM SHAPE LIFE IN TOTTENHAM
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25691


THE SOCIALIST WORKER
DEEP ANGER THAT SPARKED A RIOT
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25688'


THE GUARDIAN
LOOTING FUELED BY SOCIAL EXCLUSION
8TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/08/looting-fuelled-by-social-exclusion?intcmp=239


WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT
LONDON BURNS: CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIOTS-AN ANARCHIST PERSPECTIVE
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.wsm.ie/c/london-riots-causes-consequences-anarchist


FROM BRIXTON TO TOTTENHAM, THE INEQUALITY AT THE HEART OF THE RIOTS
JODY MCINTYRE
8TH AUGUST 2011

http://jodymcintyre.wordpress.com/2011/08/08/from-brixton-to-tottenham-the-inequality-at-the-heart-of-the-riots/


THE SOCIALIST WORKER
RIOTS: THE VOICE OF THE UNHEARD
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25656


[22]


HISTORY OF THE RIOTS

THE GUARDIAN
TOTTENHAM: ECHOES OF A HISTORY NOT FORGOTTEN AS RIOTING RETURNS
7TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/07/tottenham-history-rioting?intcmp=239

RIOTS IN ENGLAND

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995_Brixton_riot


1980 St. Pauls riot · 1981 England riots · 1981 Brixton riot · 1981 Chapeltown race riot · 1981 Toxteth riots · 1981 Moss Side riot · Handsworth race riots · 1985 Brixton riot · 1985 Broadwater Farm riot · 1987 Chapeltown race riot · 1989 Dewsbury race riot




THE SOCIALIST WORKER
ALEX WHEATLE: THE ANGER THAT CAUSED RIOTS HAS NEVER GONE AWAY
9TH AUGUSTUS 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25683


[23]

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL ABOUT POLICE VIOLENCE IN FRANCE AND POLICE IMPUNITY

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

THE SEARCH FOR JUSTICE:
THE EFFECTIVE IMPUNITY OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS IN CASES OF SHOOTINGS, DEATHS IN CUSTODY OR TORTURE AND ILL TREATMENT
5TH APRIL 2005

http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/EUR21/001/2005/en/33ee48f6-d535-11dd-8a23-d58a49c0d652/eur210012005en.html

BBC TIMELINE FRENCH RIOTS OF 2005

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4413964.stm


FRENCH RIOTS IN 2005

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005_civil_unrest_in_France

FRENCH RIOTS IN 2007

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_civil_unrest_in_France


And so conditions were ripe for violence in France's immigrant suburbs when two teenagers of African origin were accidentally electrocuted in October 2005 while hiding from police.

http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/paris_riots/


Then, in November 2007, two teens were killed in a crash with a police patrol car in the Paris suburb of Villiers-le-Bel.

http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/paris_riots/


LOS ANGELES RIOTS 1992

BBC
1992: LA IN FLAMES AFTER ''NOT GUILTY'' VERDICT

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/29/newsid_2500000/2500471.stm


WIKIPEDIA
1992 LOS ANGELES RIOTS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1992_Los_Angeles_riots


[24]

THE MORNING STAR
TINDERBOX BRITAIN
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/news/content/view/full/108079

WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT
LONDON BURNS: CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIOTS-AN ANARCHIST PERSPECTIVE
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.wsm.ie/c/london-riots-causes-consequences-anarchist




THE SOCIALIST WORKER
WHY PEOPLE ARE RIOTING
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25645


[25]

THE MORNING STAR
TINDERBOX BRITAIN
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/news/content/view/full/108079


WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT
LONDON BURNS: CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIOTS-AN ANARCHIST PERSPECTIVE
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.wsm.ie/c/london-riots-causes-consequences-anarchist


INQUEST
DEATH IN POLICE CUSTODY

http://inquest.gn.apc.org/website/statistics/deaths-in-police-custody


[26]


SCARMAN REPORT [1981]

BBC
1981: BRIXTION RIOTS REPORT BLAMES RACIAL TENSION

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/25/newsid_2546000/2546233.stm

BBC
1981: BRIXTON RIOTS REPORT BLAMES RACIAL TENSION

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/25/newsid_2546000/2546233.stm

THE SOCIALIST REVIEW
CAN THE POLICE BE REFORMED?

http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/sr228/morgan.htm

GIFFORD REPORT [1986]

''Just a few years later this led to another explosion of anger with the riot on the Broadwater Farm estate in Tottenham following the death of local resident Cynthia Jarrett during a police raid. The riot was led by local black people, but it also involved local whites, and the anger was again directed against the police. The government set up an independent inquiry into the riot, chaired by Lord Gifford QC. This report also stressed the need to improve local facilities, tackle unemployment and increase spending. But its criticisms of the police were much harder than the Scarman Report. On the issue of racism it said, 'We call for a ruthless determination to eradicate racism from the police force... ''

Bron:

THE SOCIALIST REVIEW
CAN THE POLICE BE REFORMED?

http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/sr228/morgan.htm



THE MACPHERSON REPORT


BBC
RACE: THE MACPHERSON REPORT

http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/english/main_issues/sections/facts/newsid_1190000/1190971.stm


THE GUARDIAN
THE MACPHERSON REPORT: SUMMARY
Macpherson's 70 proposals to take on our 'institutionally racist' police
24TH FEBRUARY 1999

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1999/feb/24/lawrence.ukcrime12


WIKIPEDIA
DEATH OF STEPHEN LAWRENCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Stephen_Lawrence




WIKIPEDIA
THE BRIXTON RIOTS 1981

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1981_Brixton_riot



METROPOLITAN POLICE
BRIXTON RIOTS 1981

http://www.met.police.uk/history/brixton_riots.htm








[27]

''No police officer has been found guilty of a death in custody in the past 40 years, despite deaths averaging one a week. ''

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
WHY PEOPLE ARE RIOTING
13TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25645


THE SOCIALIST WORKER
SHOT IN THE HEAD, DEAD AFTER AN ARREST: THE POLICE COVER UPS
13 AUGUSTUS 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25660


DEATH OF CYNTHIA JARRETT

''No police officers were charged or disciplined for her death.''

WIKIPEDIA
BROADWATER FARM RIOT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot


THE DEATH OF CHERRY GROCE
BBC
OFFICER CLEARED IN GROCE SHIOOTING CASE

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/15/newsid_2530000/2530537.stm


WIKIPEDIA
CHERRY GROCE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherry_Groce


[28]

WIKIPEDIA

DEATH OF PC BLAKELOCK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot#Death_of_PC_Blakelock

Source:

WIKIPEDIA

BROADWATER FARM RIOT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot


WIKIPEDIA
THE MURDER OF KEITH BLAKELOCK

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Keith_Blakelock


[29]

TRIALS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot#Trials

Source:

WIKIPEDIA

BROADWATER FARM RIOT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
TRUTH ABLOUT BROADWATER FARM RIOT AND THE KILLING OF PC BLAKELOCK
16TH FEBRUARY 2010

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=20276



[30]

ESDA test

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrostatic_detection_device


[31]

''Three adults, Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip and Mark Braithwaite, were convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment despite no witnesses and limited forensic evidence[citation needed]. The Tottenham Three are Innocent Campaign and the Broadwater Farm Defence Campaign pressed for a retrial. On 25 November 1991, all three defendants were cleared by the Court of Appeal when an ESDA test demonstrated police notes of interrogations (the only evidence) had been tampered with. Braithwaite and Raghip were released after four years in prison. Silcott remained in prison for the separate murder of another man, Tony Smith. He was released on licence in 2003 after serving eighteen years for that crime. The officer in charge of the interrogation was cleared of perjury.''


TRIALS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot#Trials

Soirce:

WIKIPEDIA

BROADWATER FARM RIOT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot

''
Back in 1985, hundreds of young black men were interviewed in connection with PC Blakelock's death.
Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip and Mark Braithwaite were convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Following a campaign by the Broadwater Farm Defence, the Broadwater Three were found not guilty by the Court of Appeal.
Police notes of the suspect interrogations - the only evidence - had been tampered with. ''


THE MORNING STAR
TINDERBOX BRITAIN
9TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/news/content/view/full/108079


[32]

BBC
SOME ENGLAND RIOTS SENTENCES ''TOO SEVERE''
17TH AUGUST 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14553330